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Gospel Topics Essay: Translation and Historicity of the Book of Abraham. Note: The Mormon Church began publishing essays on a variety of historical and doctrinal issues. To see an overview of the Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, articles, you can go here: Gospel Topic Essays: Fixing History? In this review of an article titled “Translation and Historicity of the Book of Abraham: A Gospel Topics Essay,” the entire article will be cited (all underlined), with my comments throughout. Here is the 5-part Viewpoint on Mormonism series broadcast during the week of December 1, 2014: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints embraces the book of Abraham as scripture. Before we go any further, I must comment on the word embraces . How can the Mormon Church leaders “embrace” the Book of Abraham?

After all, this book in Stock Image, the LDS canon is perhaps the biggest reason church members leave Mormonism. There is plenty of evidence to show the Book of Abraham is Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter., fraudulent, a false bill of Research Resume Resume sales, an invitation to join a Ponzi scheme, and so much worse. If the church “embraces” this book, then we must wonder why so very little has been said about it at General Conferences held since the Admission, 1970s. Rather, I believe this part of LDS scripture is an embarrassment to the church, so don’t be fooled by this statement. As far as the reference to the “ book” of Abraham, I’m not sure why the small letter “b” is used. The “Book” of Mormon is always capitalized. And although many sources on lds.org don’t capitalize the word “book,” others do. (For example, see here.) It is also capitalized in the explanatory note preceding the book in the LDS canon (“ A Translation of some ancient Records that have fallen into our hands from the catacombs of Egypt. The writings of Registered Dental Image Abraham while he was in Egypt, called the Book of Abraham, written by his own hand, upon papyrus.”) The media traditionally capitalize it (i.e. Day Camp Counselor Ivy League. see here and here). Even LDS apologists capitalize it. No explanation is given for making it lowercased, but in this article, I will retain the traditional capitalized “Book” of Abraham and Registered Letter Of leave the underlined portions intact. This book, a record of the Day Camp Counselor Ivy League, biblical prophet and patriarch Abraham, recounts how Abraham sought the blessings of the priesthood, rejected the idolatry of Smart Objectives Marketing his father, covenanted with Jehovah, married Sarai, moved to Canaan and Egypt, and Day Camp Letter. Ivy League Admission received knowledge about the Creation.

The book of Abraham largely follows the biblical narrative but adds important information regarding Abraham’s life and teachings. This isn’t the first time where a church publication lifted the Book of Abraham to Smart Marketing a lofty position. A church manual boasts: The book of Admission Successful Abraham is an Checkbook Register evidence of the inspired calling of the Prophet Joseph Smith. It came forth at a time when the study of the ancient Egyptian language and culture was just beginning.

The scholars of the 1800s had scarcely begun to explore the field of Letter. Ivy League Egyptology, and yet, with no formal training in ancient languages and no knowledge of ancient Egypt (except his work with the Book of Mormon), Joseph Smith began his translation of the ancient manuscripts. His knowledge and ability came through the power and gift of Dental | Above Is The Image God, together with his own determination and faith. ( Pearl of Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful Great Price Student Manual Religion 327 , 2000, p. 29). Another one states: In 1967 eleven fragments of the Joseph Smith papyri were rediscovered by Checkbook Register Template, Doctor Aziz S. Atiya, in the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art. Studies of them have confirmed that they are mainly ancient Egyptian funerary texts of the sort commonly buried with royalty and nobility and Day Camp Counselor Letter. Ivy League designed to guide them through their eternal journeyings. This has renewed the question about the connection between the records and the book of Abraham. Joseph Smith did not explain the method of translating the book of Abraham, just as he did not explain fully how the Book of Mormon was translated. Nevertheless, like the Book of Mormon, the book of Abraham is Contract Titled A Contract, its own evidence that it came about through the Cover Ivy League Successful, gift and power of God ( Church History in the Fulness of Times: Religion 341-43 , p. 258). According to Registered Dental Assistant Letter Is The these manuals, Smith was inspired. Even though these are mainly Egyptian funerary texts and not writings from the patriarch Abraham, the reader is supposed to believe that “the book of Abraham is its own evidence that it came about through the gift and power of God.”

So what do we do with the Cover Letter. Ivy League Successful, Book of Abraham? There are only two possibilities: 1) Joseph Smith really did receive authentic papyri that contained the Smart Objectives, writings of Abraham. 2) Joseph Smith really never had papyri with writings of Abraham. For the sake of argument, let’s assume the first possibility is correct and Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful Smith did receive authentic papyri filled with the Contract Image Terminate, words of Abraham. If this is the Counselor Ivy League Admission, case, then we still have two more possibilities: 1) Joseph Smith really did know how to Research Resume Samples Visualcv Samples translate these Egyptian hieroglyphics and put them into Day Camp Cover Ivy League Admission Successful English, which we have today and Scientist Visualcv Samples found in the Book of Abraham. 2) Joseph Smith really did not know how to Ivy League Successful translate these Egyptian hieroglyphics. If Joseph Smith never had papyri with writings of Abraham, we are left with three possibilities. Joseph Smith was.

As the Gospel Topics essay explains, the Contract Sample. Image, Mormon Church continues to Letter. Admission “embrace the book of Abraham as scripture.” In other words, a person must have faith that this book is authentic (#1 in the first scenario) and translatable by the hand of Joseph Smith (#1 in Research Resume Samples, the second scenario). If the second possibility in either scenario is correct, then the Book of Counselor Cover Successful Abraham is not what it is touted to be by LDS Church leaders. The book of Abraham was first published in 1842 and was canonized as part of the Pearl of Great Price in 1880. Assistant Is The. The book originated with Egyptian papyri that Joseph Smith translated beginning in 1835. Many people saw the papyri, but no eyewitness account of the translation survives, making it impossible to reconstruct the Ivy League Admission, process. Only small fragments of the long papyrus scrolls once in Joseph Smith’s possession exist today. The relationship between those fragments and the text we have today is largely a matter of conjecture. Let’s provide a little background.

In July 1835 Joseph Smith met a traveling showman by Samples Resume Samples Database, the name of Michael H. Chandler who was displaying four Egyptian mummies in Day Camp Counselor Admission Successful, Kirtland, Ohio. Along with the mummies, Chandler possessed two rolls of papyri that contained a number of hieroglyphics, which he sold to the Mormons for $2,400. The next day, Smith proclaimed that the Template, manuscripts were actually written by none other than two Old Testament patriarchs: I commenced the translation of some of the Successful, characters or hieroglyphics, and much to our joy found that one of the rolls contained the writings of Abraham, another the writings of Joseph of Egypt, etc. Organization Chart Image 35390151. ( History of the Church, 2:235–36.) To stumble on such an Cover Letter. Successful incredible find was, in itself, an amazing stroke of what Mormons would view as divine providence. Imagine for a moment what a discovery this would be if, in fact, Smith had really come across the writings of Abraham and Joseph.

They would be priceless, predating the Book of Genesis by Smart Objectives - Youtube, about five hundred years. If, as some LDS leaders believed, the Book of Abraham was actually written by the patriarch himself, they would be the only autograph manuscripts of biblical personalities currently available. For example, President Wilford Woodruff said, The Lord is Blessing Joseph with Power to reveal mysteries of the kingdom of God; to translate through the Day Camp Counselor Cover Admission Successful, urim and Thummim Ancient records Hyeroglyphics as old as Abraham or Adam. . . . Joseph the Seer has presented us some of the Book of Abraham which was written by his own hand but hid from the knowledged of man for the last four thousand years. . Organization Stock - Image:. . . Counselor Successful. (Susan Staker, ed., Waiting for Resume Template | Resume And Professional World’s End: The Diaries of Wilford Woodruff (Salt Lake City, Utah: Signature Books, 1993), 50-51. Ellipsis and spelling in original. Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Admission Successful. For more information on this topic, see here.)

Of the two papyri, Smith chose to focus on the one he claimed was written by the patriarch Abraham, who, according to the text, supposedly held the priesthood well before it was even formulated by 9: Setting Smart Plan, God in the days of the Levites. In 1842 the Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Successful, Mormon periodical Times and Seasons printed everything that Smith was able to translate until that time. These were the 1 March, 15 March, and 16 May 1842 issues of the Times and Chart Seasons. Circumstances would prohibit him from “translating” the Letter. Ivy League Admission, rest of the Book of Abraham papyrus or the Template | Resume Template Resume, other papyrus that he called the Book of Day Camp Counselor Letter. Ivy League Joseph. In 1851 Smith’s uncompleted translation was published as a part of the Pearl of 9: Setting Objectives In A - Youtube Great Price . This was canonized in 1880, thus elevating the Book of Abraham to the level of LDS scripture. One of the Day Camp Counselor Letter. Ivy League Admission, major doctrines emanating from the Checkbook Register Register Template, Book of Abraham is the “curse of Cain.” Abraham 1:21-26 states, Now this king of Egypt was a descendant from the loins of Ham, and was a partaker of the blood of the Canaanites by birth. From this descent sprang all the Egyptians, and thus the blood of the Canaanites was preserved in Day Camp Letter. Admission Successful, the land. The land of Egypt being first discovered by Termination Image Titled A Contract, a woman, who was the daughter of Cover Admission Successful Ham, and Organization Image 35390151 the daughter of Egyptus, which in the Chaldean signifies Egypt, which signifies that which is Cover Letter., forbidden; When this woman discovered the land it was under water, who afterward settled her sons in it; and thus, from Ham, sprang that race which preserved the curse in Chart Image 35390151, the land. Now the first government of Egypt was established by Pharaoh, the eldest son of Day Camp Counselor Ivy League Admission Egyptus, the daughter of Ham, and it was after the manner of the Register | Checkbook Template, government of Ham, which was patriarchal.

Pharaoh, being a righteous man, established his kingdom and Day Camp Cover Letter. Admission Successful judged his people wisely and Checkbook Register justly all his days, seeking earnestly to imitate that order established by the fathers in the first generations, in Counselor Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, the days of the Marketing Plan, first patriarchal reign, even in Counselor Letter. Successful, the reign of Adam, and also of Noah, his father, who blessed him with the blessings of the earth, and with the Dental Assistant | Above Image Of, blessings of Cover Letter. Admission wisdom, but cursed him as pertaining to the Priesthood. Smith used this passage in 1836 to claim that those with African heritage had inherited this “curse,” the impetus for the later ban of Blacks from the LDS priesthood. It wasn’t until 1978 when this stringent ban was lifted. Today, however, no changes have been made to this portion of LDS scripture and the entire book remains in Research Scientist Samples Visualcv Resume, the standard works canon. In 1966, eleven pieces of Smith’s original papyri were discovered in the Metropolitan Museum in New York, which were later turned over to the LDS Church. This discovery would be a major blow to the idea that the Book of Abraham should be considered authentic scripture from the patriarch. Day Camp Cover Letter. Successful. Thus, the Gospel Topics essay says that ““only small fragments of the long papyrus scrolls once in Joseph Smith’s possession exist today” and that there is a large segment of the scroll now missing. Such an assertion is simply not true.

Egyptologists have said that, if anything is missing, it is a minute fraction. When Smith’s “translation” of the Egyptian hieroglyphics is - Image: 35390151, considered, we can see that he had no clue as to what he was doing. For instance, he took one backwards E letter—which, in the Egyptian, was part of a series of Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful letters that mean “pool”—and turned this letter into Contract Sample. Image 73 words (Abraham 1:13-14). In fact, this practice was common throughout his “translation.” Charles Larson states, On some occasions Joseph Smith separated a single Egyptian word to derive characters for his “translation,” while at other times he combined more than one Egyptian word into a single set of characters. In all cases his translation attributes a far more complex explanation to the Egyptian letters and words of Papyrus Joseph Smith XI than do professional Egyptologists, and Smith ascribes meanings to words which are totally unrelated to Day Camp Cover Successful their actual denotation. Thus, Joseph Smith’s “translation” is completely incorrect in both method and content. ( By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus , 96)

The content of the writing is not even close to what Smith “translates,” a fact offered by David Persuitte: Papyrus No. XI and its associated pieces were actually a version of what is called the Egyptian “Book of Breathings,” or a “Breathing Permit.” The papyri upon which it is found are sometimes called “Sen-Sen” papyri because of the Egyptian word for Letter | Above Image Of “breathing,” which occurs frequently in the text. Day Camp Counselor Cover Ivy League. The Book of Breathings represents an attempt by the Egyptians to consolidate those elements of Chart - Image: their beliefs that were essential parts of their funeral rites. It was, in short, a sort of talisman that was buried with the dead to assure their well-being in the afterlife. ( Joseph Smith and the Origins of the Book of Mormon , 292). According to Dr.

Robert Ritner from the University of Letter. Chicago, the Book of Breathings is, for Template Resume all intents and purposes, intact; there are no substantial missing pieces. He stated, Assuming no reason that this particular Book of Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful Breathings scroll must be expanded much beyond the Chart Stock Image - Image:, surviving length, I have now read the entire document from the Day Camp Admission Successful, beginning to the end and have made up what one could make out on the poor copy of the Cover Is The Of, final vignette. The most that is missing from this text is simply two columns of Egyptian hieratic and possibly a small vignette, but other than that there would be nothing more that would inflate its current length other than its current size. Cover Ivy League Successful. It is both unprecedented and Research Resume Visualcv Resume Samples Database unreasonable to assume that an intrusive text about a completely different matter, a narrative history about Abraham and his descendants, would have been inserted into a document whose beginning, middle, and end is devoted specifically to the resurrection of an Egyptian priest. It would disrupt the document and Counselor Letter. have nothing to do with this content. ( The Lost Book of Abraham , quoted at 40 minutes) I’ll quote Dr. Ritner elsewhere in Research Visualcv, this paper, as he is an Egyptologist who is most willing to Day Camp Ivy League Admission talk about this specific Book of Abraham issue.

As a scholar, he is Contract Image A Contract, not very impressed with the scholarship of the Mormon community, and the Gospel Topics essay did not convince him that the Book of Day Camp Counselor Admission Successful Abraham is authentic. In a review of the essay called “A Response to Termination Contract Sample. Image Titled ‘Translation and Historicity of the Book of Abraham,'” Dr. Counselor Letter. Ivy League Admission. Ritner wrote: The recent web posting on the Book of Template Template And Professional Abraham by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- Day Saints (hereafter the LDS church) represents new reflection on a document whose authenticity as verifiable history is now officially acknowledged to be in serious dispute. Counselor Ivy League Successful. Thus the position paper concludes with a concession by noting (unnamed) modern scholarly opposition to the Book of Abraham, followed by a defense against any such scholarly debate: “The veracity and value of the book of Abraham cannot be settled by scholarly debate concerning the book’s translation and historicity.” Rather, the truth of the Checkbook Register | Checkbook Register Template, book is sought in ways that cannot be verified externally, relying exclusively upon traditional faith: “a careful study of Day Camp Successful its teachings, sincere prayer, and the confirmation of the Spirit.”

Such a declaration may seem reasonable to those already predisposed to accept it, but on closer reading, the LDS church posting suggests discomfort with its own conclusions and reasoning. Not a single opposing scholar is mentioned by name, nor are their reasons for rejecting the Book of Abraham. Yet the LDS paper attempts to engage in scholarly debate from a one-sided position, repeatedly citing in the footnotes the same limited set of apologists who are primarily church employees at BYU in Organization Chart, Provo. Day Camp Counselor Cover. The significance of these apologetic publications will be discussed below. If scholarly dispute over translation and historicity is ultimately irrelevant, why bother to devote extended paragraphs to rebuttals of unmentioned objections on “Translation and the Book of Abraham,” “The Papyri,” and “The Book of Abraham and the Ancient World”? According to Dr. Sample. Image Terminate. Ritner, the “works cited” for this paper is not much different from the LDS scholars who have been attempting to Counselor defend their scripture over the years. This makes sense because, most likely, these same scholars are the ones who probably wrote the unattributed Gospel Topics essay in Organization Chart Image 35390151, the first place! These Mormon scholars have created a number of Day Camp Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission theories have been proposed over the years to 9: Setting Smart Marketing - Youtube prop up the efficacy of the Book of Day Camp Cover Letter. Admission Abraham. In fact, consider the Registered Dental Assistant Letter Image Of, “Hidden Meaning” theory, the “Mnemonic Device” theory, the “Any Egyptian Connection” theory, the “Scribes Did It” theory, the “Missing Black and Counselor Cover Admission Successful Red Scroll” theory, the “Mistaken Identity” theory, the “Catalyst” Theory, and the “Nobody Really Understands Egyptian Anyway” theory. Register Template. Some of these “theories” are as far-fetched as Bigfoot eating the Loch Ness Monster.

Not one of these theories has been able to hold up when the evidence is considered. (See chapter 11 (“The Intellectual Approaches”) in By His Own Hand Upon Papyru s by Charles Larson for explanations of each theory.) Instead of focusing on Day Camp Counselor Admission Successful, missing pieces of the Book of Abraham (for which there is little evidence), perhaps LDS scholars and apologists should be dealing with the Targeted Resume | Resume, problems caused by Successful, what we is available. Targeted Resume Template Template. Absolutely nothing that we have today provides any support for Smith’s LDS scripture. We do know some things about the translation process. The word translation typically assumes an expert knowledge of Counselor multiple languages. Joseph Smith claimed no expertise in Organization Stock 35390151, any language. He readily acknowledged that he was one of the “weak things of the world,” called to Day Camp Counselor Letter. speak words sent “from heaven.” Speaking of the translation of the Book of Mormon, the Lord said, “You cannot write that which is sacred save it be given you from me.” The same principle can be applied to the book of Abraham. The Lord did not require Joseph Smith to have knowledge of Egyptian. By the gift and power of God, Joseph received knowledge about the life and teachings of Abraham. The LDS article explains how “Smith claimed no expertise in any language,” including Egyptian. Resume Template | Resume Template And Professional. By making this admission, the Day Camp Counselor Letter. Ivy League, argument maintains that Smith must have been given divine revelation to Resume Resume make his Book of Day Camp Cover Ivy League Admission Successful Abraham translation. Termination Contract Image A Contract. After all, he had previously done this a few years before with the “reformed Egyptian” text of the Book of Mormon, which he claimed he did “by the gift and power of Day Camp Admission Successful God.” And voila, here are the same words being used in this essay to show how his divine inspiration (rather than his understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphics) allowing him to make his translation of the Book of Abraham.

Is this a coincidence? Hardly. Comparing the Research Scientist Resume Visualcv, Book of Letter. Ivy League Mormon to the Book of Abraham, Christian author H. Michael Marquardt states: Only part of the original 1829 manuscript of the Register Register, Book of Mormon pages of the dictated text is extent. We do not have the gold plates to determine how accurate Joseph Smith’s dictation from the Egyptian was.

But we do have the Egyptian papyri, Joseph Smith’s Egyptian Alphabet, and the Book of Abraham Translation Manuscripts. These later manuscripts together with Joseph Smith’s journal and knowing when his scribes worked with him all place the dictation process in the last half of 1835. With all of this historical background we have enough information to examine Joseph Smith’s competence with the ancient Egyptian language. ( The Rise of Mormonism: 1816-1844 , 407.) Let’s consider how the Day Camp Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, LDS prophet was able to get away with this ploy. In Smith’s day few people could have been considered experts in the field of Egyptology. The famous Rosetta Stone, currently on display at the British Museum in Titled Terminate A Contract, London, was discovered accidentally in Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Admission, 1799 by Napoleon’s troops in Egypt. A number of Sample. Terminate scholars worked for years to decipher the stone, which contained hieroglyphic Egyptian, demotic Egyptian, and Greek characters. Finally, Jean Francois Champollion announced his results in 1822. Yet getting this information communicated to a general population would take many years before the Information Age took place. As Dr. Ritner explains:

In the 1840s in the United States, the ancient Egyptian language was virtually unknown. It had only Ivy League Successful, been to be deciphered in 1822 and that knowledge simply had not crossed the Atlantic. So any interpretation given to an Egyptian document in 1842 or 45 or 50 or even 1860 would have been believable to a general audience. We would have no way of comparing it with the actual truth ( The Lost Book of Abraham, 14 minutes in) By 1861, T. Deveria had noted a series of anachronisms and Template And Professional Resume absurdities in the supposed translations and woodcut vignettes, and in 1912 a solicitation for professional opinions on the matter drew uniformly derisive assessments from A. H. Sayce, W. Counselor Letter. Ivy League Admission. M. Samples Visualcv Resume. F. Petrie, J. H. Breasted, A. C. Mace, J. Peters, S. A. B. Mercer, E. Meyer, and F. W. von Bissing Dr. Ritner did an extended study on the different papyri that were discovered in 1967. Counselor Ivy League. As far as Facsmilies 1 and 2, he writes: Comparison of the surviving initial vignette of the Hor papyrus with Facsimile 1 proves beyond doubt, as the LDS web post agrees, that it was “the vignette that became facsimile 1.” However, neither Facsimile 1 nor 2 is a true copy, and both contain added forgeries, including the human-head and knife of the supposed “idolatrous priest of Elkenah” (Fig. 3 on Facsimile 1) as can be seen in the crude pencil additions to the original papyrus sheet as mounted and “improved” for publication by the LDS church in 1842. NOTE: Go here to see an excellent portrayal of Facsimiles 1-3 by Infographics. In a video, he explained,

What this document really is is an extended prayer on behalf of a deceased Egyptian priest, which begins with an Dental Assistant Letter Image invocation to Day Camp Counselor the god of mummification, probably, certainly with a picture of the god of mummification, to ensure the Termination Image Terminate, priest’s continued existence into the next world, and then it’s followed by a series of statements where “Oh deified Horus, may you walk as you head down in life, may your ears function, may your eyes function, may the gods receive you.” Long series of invocations on this, essentially assuring that this dead priest is Day Camp Letter. Ivy League Successful, able to function in death as he had in life, but now as part of a company of the ancient Egyptian gods. Checkbook | Checkbook Register. Abraham is not mentioned once. ( The Lost Book of Counselor Cover Ivy League Admission Successful Abraham video, 38 minutes in) Smith’s papyrus was both torn and attached to a backing that held it in place. On the backing someone, possibly Smith, filled in areas that were missing. An examination of Assistant Cover | Above Is The Joseph Smith’s Facsimile No.

1 exposes a number of discrepancies between Smith’s interpretation and that of modern Egyptologists. Smith claimed that the Day Camp Counselor Letter., facsimile portrays Abraham lying on an altar. Standing next to him is the Assistant Cover Image, idolatrous priest Elkanah who holds a knife in his hand. Counselor Cover Ivy League Admission Successful. Smith claimed that Elkanah was attempting to offer Abraham as a sacrifice. Dental Assistant | Above Image. Below the altar are figures that Smith describes as idolatrous gods.

Smith named a bird that hovers above the head of Abraham as the angel of the Lord. Richard A. Parker, once the chairman of the department of Egyptology at Day Camp Successful Brown University, disagreed with Smith’s assessment. He claimed: This is Research Scientist Visualcv Resume Database, a well-known scene from the Day Camp Ivy League Admission, Osiris mysteries, with Anubis, the jackal-headed god, on the left ministering to Marketing - Youtube the dead Osiris on the bier. The pencilled(?) restoration is incorrect. Anubis should be jackal-headed. Day Camp Counselor Successful. The left arm of Osiris is in reality lying at his side under him. The apparent upper hand is part of the wing of a second bird which is hovering over the erect phallus of Osiris (now broken away). The second bird is Isis and she is magically impregnated by the dead Osiris and then later gives birth to Horus who avenges his father and takes over his inheritance.

The complete bird represents Nephthys, sister to Osiris and Research Resume Visualcv Isis. Beneath the bier are the four canopic jars with heads representative of the four sons of Horus, human-headed Imseti, baboon-headed Hapy, jackal-headed Duamutef and falcon-headed Kebehsenuf. (Richard A. Cover Letter. Ivy League Successful. Parker, “The Joseph Smith Papyri: A Preliminary Report,” Dialogue 3, no. Contract Titled A Contract. 2 (summer 1968): 86.) For a comparison of Joseph Smith’s interpretation of Facsimile 1 compared to what it really was, click here. Other problems develop when Facsimile No. 2 is considered. This circular drawing supposedly verified the Cover Ivy League Admission, LDS teaching that God lives near a planet called Kolob. Smith also claimed it gave reference to Targeted Resume Template | Resume Template “grand Key-words of the Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Successful, Priesthood.” (Explanation of figure seven opposite Facsimile No. 2.) Key words are an essential part of the LDS temple ceremony. Speaking specifically about Facsmilie 2, Dr.

Ritner states, Facsimile 2 derives from a separate burial, for an individual named Sheshonq. Large portions of this published “facsimile” were improperly inserted from unrelated papyri. Targeted Template. All of Smith’s published “explanations” are incorrect, including the lone example defended by the new web posting. According to Egyptologist Stephen E. Thompson:

Facsimile 2 is a drawing of an Egyptian funerary amulet known as a hypocephalus, which was placed under the head of the mummy and was intended to protect the head of the deceased, provide him with the Day Camp Cover Ivy League Admission Successful, sun’s life-giving warmth, and to make it possible for him to join the sun god Re in his celestial boat, and thereby insure his continued, pleasant existence in the next life. (Stephen Thompson, “Egyptology and the Book of Mormon,” Dialogue 28, no. 1 (spring 1995): 149–50.) Thompson went on to say: Concerning Joseph Smith’s interpretations of the 9: Setting Objectives Marketing - Youtube, figures in this facsimile, it has been stated that “his explanations, are, in general, reasonable in light of modern Egyptological knowledge.” A comparison of Smith’s interpretations with current Egyptological scholarship shows that this statement is also incorrect. (Ibid., 150.) For a look at Day Camp Counselor Cover Ivy League Admission Successful the translation of Resume Template | Resume And Professional Resume Facsimilie 2 by Smith versus what the Egyptian really said, click here. And for Facsimile 3, he writes, In Facsimile 3, Smith confuses human and animal heads and Letter. Ivy League Successful males with females. Termination Sample. A Contract. No amount of Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Admission Successful special pleading can change the female “Isis the great, the god’s mother” (Facsimile 3, Fig. 2) into the male “King Pharaoh, whose name is given in Register Register Template, the characters above his hand,” as even the LDS author Michael D. Rhodes accepts. Counselor Cover Letter. Successful. Here Smith also misunderstands “Pharaoh” as a personal name rather than a title meaning “king,” so he reads “king king” for Research Scientist Samples Visualcv Samples Database a goddess’s name that he claims to have understood on the papyrus!

For a look at Facsimile 3, click here. When the manuscript of the Book of Abraham became available in the 1960s, scholars were now able to investigate whether or not Joseph Smith was indeed a prophet inspired by God with the ability to Counselor Letter. translate another language. As it turns out, Smith had no clue about the Egyptian language. Marquardt writes, Joseph Smith’s work on his Book of Abraham Egyptian alphabet, seven years later shows that he could not understand or interpret documents written anciently. Termination A Contract. From examinations done by Egyptologists, their studies show that Smith had not the slightest idea what the Egyptian characters meant relating to names, places, and subject matter. These manuscript pages clearly show that Joseph Smith pretended to translate Egyptian records.

The claim that they had been written by the biblical Abraham is Cover Letter. Ivy League, without a solid foundation. The manuscript pages show that Smith used the Bible like he did when he dictated the Book of Mormon text. ( The Rise of Mormonism: 1816-1844 , 406.) Egyptologists are unanimous that Smith’s “translation” was inaccurate and that his source was, in fact, of 9: Setting Smart Objectives In A pagan origin, having nothing to Counselor Letter. Successful do with the patriarch Abraham. As Charles Larson explains, Based on comparisons of the Metropolitan papyri to every available resource, including descriptions contemporary with Joseph Smith of the so-called Abraham and Joseph scrolls, as well as to a number of original translation manuscripts and Dental Assistant Cover Letter | Above Image Of other notes of the time, the papyrus scroll Joseph Smith represented as containing “the writings of Abraham” was shown to be merely a common pagan funeral papyrus of late date known as the Book of Breathings. The scroll thought to Counselor Admission contain the Samples Resume Samples, “writings of Joseph of Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Egypt” was also identified as a typical late copy of the Terminate, Egyptian Book of the Bead, which had been prepared for a woman named Ta-shert-Min. Day Camp Ivy League. Neither scroll ever had anything to do with the biblical patriarchs Abraham or Joseph, except in the mind of Joseph Smith. ( By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus , 173-74.) He also wrote on page 175: Not a single word, thought, or concept from Joseph Smith’s Book of Abraham, including his explanations of Registered Assistant Cover Letter Is The Of his three facsimiles, is in any way related to the subject matter of the common Egyptian funeral texts from which they were supposedly translated. Dr.

Lanny Bell, who teaches Egyptology at Brown University, adds, From the evidence we have today, it’s quite safe to say that Joseph Smith did not have the Book of Abraham or the Book of Joseph in front of Cover Letter. Ivy League him in the form of these papyri because they bear no relationship to Image - Image: the context of these stories or his translation. Their findings are exactly the same as the research given by Egyptologists going back to the 19 th century, including Dr. A. Counselor Letter. Admission Successful. H. Sayce (Oxford University), Dr. W.M. Titled Terminate A Contract. Flinders Petrie (London University), Dr. James H. Breasted (University of Day Camp Cover Ivy League Admission Chicago), Dr.

Arthur C. Mace (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York), Dr. John Peters (University of Pennsylvania), Dr. Edward Meyer (University of Smart Objectives Marketing - Youtube Berlin), Dr. Freidrick Freiheer Von Bissing (University of Munich), and Dr. Samnuel A. Day Camp Ivy League. B. Mercer (Western Theological Seminary). (For these quotes, see What Every Mormon (and Non-Mormon) Should Know , written by Edmond C. Gruss and Lane A. Thuet, pp. 162-164.) In fact, we know of no reputable Egyptologist (outside of the Stock Image - Image: 35390151, LDS Church’s John Gee) who has accepted Smith’s translation. On many particulars, the book of Abraham is consistent with historical knowledge about the ancient world. Some of Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission this knowledge, which is Termination Contract Titled Terminate, discussed later in this essay, had not yet been discovered or was not well known in 1842. But even this evidence of ancient origins, substantial though it may be, cannot prove the Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, truthfulness of the book of Abraham any more than archaeological evidence can prove the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt or the Resurrection of the Titled Terminate A Contract, Son of God. The book of Abraham’s status as scripture ultimately rests on faith in the saving truths found within the Counselor, book itself as witnessed by | Checkbook Register Template, the Holy Ghost.

This claim is very similar to one made in a 2000 church manual: The Prophet Joseph Smith never communicated his method of translating these records. Day Camp Ivy League Admission Successful. As with all other scriptures, a testimony of the truthfulness of these writing is primarily a matter of faith. The greatest evidence of the truthfulness of the book of Abraham is not found in an analysis of physical evidence nor historical back­ground, but in Register Template, prayerful consideration of its contents and power. ( The Pearl of Great Price Student Manual – Religion 327 , 2000, p. 28). Ahh, so here we have it. Apparently a Mormon is encouraged to disregard any evidence that might weigh against the Book of Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Successful Abraham. Targeted Template Template And Professional. Let’s take the examples given in the essay regarding archaeological evidence: Exodus of the Cover Ivy League Admission Successful, Israelites from Egypt: Of course, we have no archaeological evidence from the Exodus, nor would we expect to find anything. After all, the people of Targeted Template | Resume And Professional Israel were nomads for 40 years and Ivy League Admission did not build anything. Nothing will ever be found to support this biblical story. Smart Objectives In A. It’s interesting that this example is used.

New evidence continually comes up in the Holy Land to support the Day Camp Successful, story of the Bible. (For examples of evidence found in 2013, see here.) It is possible to visit Jericho, Ai, Caesarea, and Bet Shean to get an idea of what took place thousands of years ago. Cover Letter Image Of. Certainly an element of faith is Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, needed to Targeted | Resume Template accept the events and people talked about in Day Camp Letter. Ivy League Admission, the Bible, but the historical/archaeological evidence is a huge support. In fact, there is much more to support the Bible than the Book of Mormon, for that matter! The Resurrection: Talk about evidence! According to Paul in the fifteenth chapter of Checkbook Register Register 1 Corinthians: 3 For I delivered unto you first of Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful all that which I also received, how that Christ died for Checkbook Register our sins according to the scriptures; 4 And that he was buried, and that he rose again the third day according to the scriptures: 5 And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve: 6 After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Admission Successful whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep.

7 After that, he was seen of James; then of all the 9: Setting Objectives Marketing Plan, apostles. 8 And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time. There is good historical evidence for the resurrection. Of course, it still takes faith. But the leap of faith is a jump into the light, not the darkness. (For a fuller depiction of reasons why a person should believe in the resurrection, click here.) These cases are much different from the faith a person must have to believe in the Book of Abraham, for which the evidence screams “fraud” rather than lending support to its veracity. The Bible is very clear that we must “test everything” (1 Thess. Day Camp Counselor Ivy League Admission Successful. 5:21).

Indeed, we are supposed to Targeted Resume Template Template “test the spirits to see if they are true for Cover Letter. Admission many false prophets have gone out into the world” (1 John 4:1). Jesus described in Chart Stock Image 35390151, the Sermon on the Mount how there are many false prophets masquerading as sheep when they are really ravenous wolves. When the Bereans tested what Paul taught them in Acts 17, they were considered nobler than the Thessalonians because they went to scripture to ascertain truth. To suggest, as this essay seems to do, that the facts ought to take a back seat to faith is Day Camp Counselor Admission Successful, flawed, no matter how spiritual a Mormon may think it sounds. At this point, I want to bring something up about the language. The Jews in those days spoke Hebrew.

There is no evidence a Jew ever wrote using Egyptian hieroglyphics. It would seem that Moses—who authored the Pentateuch—is the Checkbook Register Register Template, more likely candidate to have written in Egyptian since he grew up in the palace of Pharaoh! Of course, Abraham did travel to Day Camp Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission Egypt, as recorded in Genesis chapter 12, and even stayed there for a short time. But this was not the land of his friends and family. Organization Stock - Image:. Instead, it was a place where, according to Abraham 1:5, “the worshiping of the Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter., gods of the heathen” was common. Thus, a Mormon needs to ask why Abraham would have written in a non-native language and style (hieroglyphics) belonging to pagans who worshiped other gods.

It is also curious that, just by chance, these very words of Abraham found their way to Kirtland, Ohio, and into the hands of a man who just so happened had the ability to “translate” them. Yet the Checkbook Register | Checkbook Template, English of the Book of Abraham is completely out of context with the Egyptian style. Dr. Ritner explains that the “translation” provided by Smith is just like trying to Admission Successful mix Chinese and Ethiopian: The narrative style of the Smart Objectives Marketing, Book of Abraham does not correspond to Egyptian verbiage. It’s not the kind of thing Egyptians would say, they wouldn’t say it in that way, and Ivy League Successful it certainly would never appear in that way in Resume Samples Visualcv, a context such as this. It couldn’t possibly be more out of place. ( The Lost Book of Abraham , 40 minutes in) We’ll consider more details that are detrimental to the Book of Abraham, and Cover when everything is put together, the Checkbook Register Template, chances the Book of Admission Abraham is 9: Setting Marketing - Youtube, authentic scripture lands between slim and none. The Book of Abraham as Scripture. Thousands of years ago, the prophet Nephi learned that one purpose of the Book of Mormon was to “establish the Day Camp Cover Letter. Admission Successful, truth” of the Bible. In a similar way, the book of Targeted Resume Template Abraham supports, expands, and clarifies the biblical account of Abraham’s life.

In the biblical account, God covenants with Abraham to Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Admission “make of thee a great nation.” The book of Smart In A Marketing Abraham provides context for Day Camp Admission that covenant by Termination Contract Image Titled, showing that Abraham was a seeker of “great knowledge” and a “follower of righteousness” who chose the right path in spite of great hardship. He rejected the Counselor Letter. Admission Successful, wickedness of Organization Chart Stock Image 35390151 his father’s household and spurned the idols of the surrounding culture, despite the threat of death. In the Day Camp Counselor Cover, Bible, God’s covenant with Abraham appears to begin during Abraham’s life. According to the book of Abraham, the covenant began before the foundation of the earth and was passed down through Adam, Noah, and other prophets. Scientist Visualcv Resume Samples. Abraham thus takes his place in a long line of prophets and patriarchs whose mission is to preserve and extend God’s covenant on earth. The heart of this covenant is the priesthood, through which “the blessings of salvation, even of life eternal” are conveyed. In order to believe that we have new things to learn about Counselor Cover Letter. Abraham, a person must trust that this book is true. To get to this point, Joseph Smith must be trusted. When we look at the life of the Mormon founder, doubts should be placed in our minds.

The book of Abraham clarifies several teachings that are obscure in the Bible. Life did not begin at birth, as is commonly believed. Prior to 9: Setting Smart In A Plan coming to earth, individuals existed as spirits. In a vision, Abraham saw that one of the spirits was “like unto God.” This divine being, Jesus Christ, led other spirits in organizing the earth out of “materials” or preexisting matter, not ex nihilo or out of nothing, as many Christians later came to Day Camp Cover Successful believe. Abraham further learned that mortal life was crucial to the plan of happiness God would provide for His children: “We will prove them herewith,” God stated, “to see if they will do all things whatsoever the Lord their God shall command them,” adding a promise to add glory forever upon the faithful. Nowhere in the Bible is the purpose and potential of earth life stated so clearly as in Template, the book of Abraham. A quick scan through the third chapter of the Book of Abraham (where the information from this part of the essay came) can easily show how Joseph Smith merely took verses from other parts of the Old Testament and restated them here. Writes Marquardt, While dictating the Book of Abraham (what is now chapter 2) Joseph Smith used the KJV Genesis as a guide and text for part of his story.

The actual wording in the story suggests the use of Genesis in composing this work. This would indicate that the Counselor Cover Ivy League Successful, wording dictated was basically a copying effort of a preestablished text. At times he revised the Termination Contract Image A Contract, KVV text to make it an autobiographical account by Abraham. The wording as printed in Day Camp Counselor Cover Ivy League Successful, the KJV was used as part of the text Abraham supposedly wrote by his own hand. Contract Sample. Image Titled A Contract. It is Counselor Letter. Admission, clear that Joseph Smith had the Bible open to the book of Genesis as he dictated this section of the Book of Abraham. ( The Rise of Mormonism: 1816-1844 , 402.) If a plagiarist wanted to make his writing sound biblical, what would keep him from copying key phrases and ideas from the book already in his hands? Consider, for example, the following: 2:11: “And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse them that curse thee.” (Compare Genesis 12:3.) 3:11: “ Thus I, Abraham, talked with the Lord, face to face, as one man talketh with another; and he told me of the Dental Assistant Letter Is The Image Of, works which his hands had made.” Compare with Exodus 33:11 and Numbers 12:8. 3:14: “And it was in the night time when the Lord spake these words unto me: I will multiply thee, and thy seed after thee, like unto these; and if thou canst count the number of sands, so shall be the number of thy seeds.” Compare with Genesis 22:17.

3:23: “And God saw these souls that they were good, and he stood in the midst of them, and Day Camp Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission he said: These I will make my rulers; for he stood among those that were spirits, and he saw that they were good; and he said unto me: Abraham, thou art one of them; thou wast chosen before thou wast born.” Compare with Jeremiah 1:5. 3:27: “And the Lord said: Whom shall I send? And one answered like unto the Checkbook Template, Son of Man: Here am I, send me. And another answered and Day Camp Cover Letter. Successful said: Here am I, send me. Termination Terminate A Contract. And the Lord said: I will send the first.” Compare with Isaiah 6:8.

But there are other odds parts to the Book of Abraham. For example, in Abraham 1:10, it reads, “Even the thank-offering of a child did the priest of Pharaoh offer upon the altar which stood by the hill called Potiphar’s Hill, at Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Successful the head of the plain of | Checkbook Olishem.” (Also see verse 20.) Potiphar was the husband of the Day Camp Cover Ivy League Successful, woman who made it look like the biblical Joseph had tried to rape her. This event took place several generations after Abraham. Organization Stock Image. Perhaps this hill could have been named after another “Potiphar.” But I have no doubt that Joseph got this name from the Bible. In Abraham 1:16, it reads, “And his voice was unto me: Abraham, Abraham, behold, my name is Jehovah, and I have heard thee, and have come down to deliver thee, and to take thee away from thy father’s house, and Day Camp Counselor Cover Admission from all thy kinsfolk, into a strange land which thou knowest not of.” And Abraham 2:8 says, “My name is Jehovah, and I know the end from the beginning; therefore my hand shall be over thee.” It must be understood that Jehovah is an English word. It is not found in the Bible, as it is neither Greek or Hebrew. Rather, the word is a result of Image Titled combining the Tetragrammaton (YHWH, a word for Ivy League Admission Successful “God”) with “Adonai,” a Greek word meaning “Lord.” Combining the vowels from the Greek and inserting them into the Hebrew YHWH created “Jehovah.” This was done well after the time that both the Bible and the Book of Abraham were originally written. The Mormon must explain how the made-up English word “Jehovah” get into the Egyptian language when it was not even invented until a thousand years after Christ.

In 2:16-17, it reads, “Therefore, eternity was our covering and our rock and our salvation, as we journeyed from Haran by the way of Jershon, to Samples Visualcv Samples Database come to the land of Canaan. Now I, Abraham, built an altar in the land of Jershon.” However, “Jershon” is a Book of Mormon place name found in Alma 35 and is not mentioned once in the Bible. Neither Abraham nor Moses would have had knowledge of New World names. Is this just another way Smith added words he had already created to Day Camp Counselor Cover Ivy League Admission Successful show that his new revelation added new details and Resume Samples Visualcv Resume Samples Database was somehow necessary as a supplement to Genesis? Abraham 2:22-24 reads: And it came to pass when I was come near to enter into Egypt, the Lord said unto me: Behold, Sarai, thy wife, is a very fair woman to look upon; Therefore it shall come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see her, they will say—She is his wife; and they will kill you, but they will save her alive; therefore see that ye do on this wise: Let her say unto the Egyptians, she is thy sister, and Day Camp Counselor Letter. Admission Successful thy soul shall live. According to the Book of Abraham, God told Abraham to Scientist Samples Visualcv Resume Samples lie. If true, this leads to two problems: 1) God is culpable of lying because he told someone (Abraham) to Counselor Ivy League do this.

2) This contradicts the biblical version which, for whatever reason, leaves this part out completely. Then, referring to the creation of the world in Smart Marketing Plan, Abraham chapter 4 and 5, Abraham moves to the plural use of “gods” (i.e. “the Gods, organized and formed the heavens and the earth,” “the Spirit of the Gods was brooding upon the face of the Cover Admission Successful, waters,” “and they (the Gods) comprehended the light, for it was bright,” “and the Gods called the light Day,” and “and the Gods ordered the expanse”), using the plural instead of the Organization Chart Stock 35390151, singular for the creation of the world. Indeed, the Day Camp Cover Letter. Ivy League, Hebrew “Elohim” is plural, but no reputable translator has ever translated this word as “gods.” When it comes to the last two chapters of the Book of Abraham, nothing is unique. In fact, Abraham 4 and Genesis 1 are parallel. The Creation: Comparing Genesis 1 and Abraham 4.

Abraham 4:1: “And then the Lord said: Let us go down. And they went down at the beginning, and they, that is the Dental Assistant Letter | Above Of, Gods, organized and formed the heavens and the earth.” Genesis 1:1: “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” Abraham 4:2: “And the earth, after it was formed, was empty and desolate, because they had not formed anything but the earth; and darkness reigned upon the face of the Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Successful, deep, and the Spirit of the Gods was brooding upon the face of the 9: Setting Marketing - Youtube, waters. Genesis 1:2: “And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the Day Camp Counselor Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, deep.

And the Checkbook | Checkbook, Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.” Abraham 4:3: “And they (the Gods) said: Let there be light; and there was light.” Genesis 1:3: “And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.” Abraham 4:4: “And they (the Gods) comprehended the light, for it was bright; and they divided the light, or caused it to be divided, from the Letter. Admission, darkness.” Genesis 1:4: “ And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.” Abraham 4:5: “And the Gods called the Organization Stock Image 35390151, light Day, and Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission the darkness they called Night. And it came to pass that from the Stock Image - Image:, evening until morning they called night; and from the morning until the evening they called day; and this was the first, or the beginning, of that which they called day and night.”

Genesis 1:5: “ And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.” Abraham 4:6: “And the Letter. Admission, Gods also said: Let there be an Chart Stock - Image: 35390151 expanse in the midst of the waters, and it shall divide the waters from the waters.” Genesis 1:6: “And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the Counselor Ivy League Admission, waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.” Abraham 4:7: “And the Gods ordered the Dental Assistant Letter | Above Is The Image Of, expanse, so that it divided the waters which were under the expanse from the Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League, waters which were above the expanse; and Resume Visualcv Resume Samples it was so, even as they ordered.” Genesis 1:7: “ And God made the firmament, and Cover Ivy League divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.” Abraham 4:8 “And the Gods called the expanse, Heaven. And it came to pass that it was from evening until morning that they called night; and it came to pass that it was from morning until evening that they called day; and this was the second time that they called night and day.” Genesis 1:8: “And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.”

Abraham 4:9: “And the Gods ordered, saying: Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the 9: Setting Smart Marketing Plan - Youtube, earth come up dry; and it was so as they ordered; Genesis 1:9: “And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.” Abraham 4:10: “And the Gods pronounced the dry land, Earth; and the gathering together of the waters, pronounced they, Great Waters; and Ivy League Admission the Gods saw that they were obeyed.” Genesis 1:10: “And God called the dry land Earth; and Targeted | Resume Template Resume the gathering together of the Day Camp Cover Successful, waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.” Abraham 4:11: “And the Gods said: Let us prepare the earth to bring forth grass; the herb yielding seed; the fruit tree yielding fruit, after his kind, whose seed in itself yieldeth its own likeness upon the earth; and it was so, even as they ordered.” Genesis 1:11: “And God said, Let the Termination Contract Image A Contract, earth bring forth grass, the Counselor Cover Letter. Admission Successful, herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in Smart Objectives Plan, itself, upon the earth: and it was so.” Abraham 4:12: “And the Gods organized the earth to bring forth grass from its own seed, and the herb to Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League bring forth herb from its own seed, yielding seed after his kind; and the earth to bring forth the tree from In A Plan - Youtube, its own seed, yielding fruit, whose seed could only Day Camp Cover Letter. Ivy League Successful, bring forth the same in itself, after his kind; and the Gods saw that they were obeyed.”

Genesis 1:12: “And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in Smart Marketing - Youtube, itself, after his kind: and Admission God saw that it was good.” Abraham 4:13: “And it came to pass that they numbered the days; from the evening until the Research Samples Resume, morning they called night; and Day Camp Counselor Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful it came to pass, from the morning until the Marketing - Youtube, evening they called day; and Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. it was the third time.” Genesis 1:13: “And the evening and the morning were the Objectives In A Marketing - Youtube, third day. Abraham 4:14: “And the Gods organized the lights in the expanse of the heaven, and caused them to divide the day from the night; and organized them to be for signs and for seasons, and for days and for years;” Genesis 1:14: “And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for Counselor Cover Letter. Admission Successful seasons, and for days, and years.” Abraham 4:15: “And organized them to Titled A Contract be for lights in the expanse of the heaven to give light upon the earth; and it was so.” Genesis 1:15: “And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.”

Abraham 4:16: “And the Gods organized the two great lights, the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; with the lesser light they set the stars also;” Genesis 1:16: “And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.” Abraham 4:17-18: “And the Gods set them in the expanse of the Cover Letter. Ivy League Successful, heavens, to give light upon the earth, and to rule over the day and over the night, and to cause to divide the light from the darkness. Research Scientist Visualcv Samples Database. And the Gods watched those things which they had ordered until they obeyed.” Genesis 1:17-18: “And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.” Abraham 4:19: “And it came to pass that it was from Cover Ivy League Admission Successful, evening until morning that it was night; and it came to pass that it was from Titled Terminate A Contract, morning until evening that it was day; and it was the fourth time.” Genesis 1:19: “And the evening and the morning were the Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, fourth day.” Abraham 4:20: “And the Gods said: Let us prepare the waters to Targeted Template | Resume Template bring forth abundantly the moving creatures that have life; and the fowl, that they may fly above the earth in Counselor Letter. Successful, the open expanse of heaven.” Genesis 1:20: “And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and Assistant | Above Of fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.” Abraham 4:21: “And the Gods prepared the waters that they might bring forth great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the Day Camp Counselor Letter. Ivy League Successful, waters were to bring forth abundantly after their kind; and every winged fowl after their kind. And the Gods saw that they would be obeyed, and Checkbook | Checkbook Register Template that their plan was good.”

Genesis 1:21: “And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.” Abraham 4:22: “And the Gods said: We will bless them, and cause them to be fruitful and Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Successful multiply, and fill the waters in the seas or great waters; and cause the fowl to Checkbook Register Template multiply in Counselor Cover Letter. Admission, the earth.” Genesis 1:22: “And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.” Abraham 4:23: “And it came to pass that it was from evening until morning that they called night; and it came to pass that it was from Scientist Resume Samples, morning until evening that they called day; and it was the fifth time.” Genesis 1:23: “And the evening and the morning were the Admission, fifth day.” Abraham 4:24: “And the Organization Chart Stock Image, Gods prepared the earth to bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle and creeping things, and beasts of the earth after their kind; and it was so, as they had said.” Genesis 1:24: “And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.” Abraham 4:25: “And the Gods organized the earth to bring forth the beasts after their kind, and cattle after their kind, and Successful every thing that creepeth upon the earth after its kind; and the Gods saw they would obey.”

Genesis 1:25: “And God made the beast of the Objectives Marketing, earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.” Abraham 4:26-27: “And the Gods took counsel among themselves and Counselor Letter. Ivy League Admission said: Let us go down and form man in our image, after our likeness; and Smart Plan - Youtube we will give them dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the Day Camp Counselor Cover Ivy League, air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. So the Gods went down to organize man in their own image, in the image of the Gods to form they him, male and female to form they them.” Genesis 1:26-27: “And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over Checkbook Register all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.” Abraham 4:28: “And the Gods said: We will bless them.

And the Gods said: We will cause them to be fruitful and multiply, and Day Camp Counselor Letter. Admission replenish the earth, and subdue it, and to have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon Registered Dental Assistant | Above Is The Of, the earth.” Genesis 1:28: “And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over Counselor Letter. Admission the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over 9: Setting Smart Objectives Plan - Youtube every living thing that moveth upon the earth.” Abraham 1:29: “And the Gods said: Behold, we will give them every herb bearing seed that shall come upon the face of all the Cover Letter. Ivy League, earth, and every tree which shall have fruit upon it; yea, the fruit of the tree yielding seed to them we will give it; it shall be for their meat.” Genesis 1:29: “And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of Scientist Samples Resume Samples a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.” Abraham 4:30: “And to every beast of the Day Camp Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission, earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to Registered Dental Image every thing that creepeth upon the earth, behold, we will give them life, and also we will give to them every green herb for meat, and all these things shall be thus organized.” Genesis 1:30: “And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so.” Abraham 4:31: “And the Gods said: We will do everything that we have said, and organize them; and behold, they shall be very obedient. And it came to pass that it was from evening until morning they called night; and it came to pass that it was from morning until evening that they called day; and they numbered the sixth time.” Genesis 1:31: “And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.”

While it’s not “word for Day Camp Counselor Letter. Successful word,” Abraham chapter 4 directly correlates with Genesis 1. A coincidence? Obviously not. Smith was intent on changing the 9: Setting Smart Objectives In A Marketing - Youtube, singular God with the plural “Gods.” And at the end of each of the days, he used the Counselor Letter. Ivy League Admission, same formula. Termination Image. Yet Joseph Smith had a chance to change Genesis 1 in his Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible. However, even though he “translated” this chapter just a couple years before, he did not use “gods” for “God.” In a single stroke, Smith uses the Counselor Cover Letter. Admission Successful, Book of Abraham to contradict both the Bible and, for that matter, the Book of Mormon (which Smith called “the most correct book on earth”). This change goes against the very teaching of the Pentateuch, as its cornerstone is Deuteronomy 6:4. Called the Shemah, the most important verse in Jewish history clearly states, “Hear O Israel, the Lord thy God, the Lord is one.” Jesus quoted this in Mark 12:29.

Literally, it says that God is one essence; there can be no plurality of gods. To believe this is to acquiesce to the pagan gods of the surrounding nations. Throughout the Scientist Visualcv Database, Bible, God is quite adamant that there are “no” gods before or after me” (singular) in Isaiah 43:10, and in Isaiah 44:6-8, God claims to know of Day Camp Counselor Cover Ivy League Successful no other gods. Consider Genesis 1:26-27 in relation to Abraham 4:26-27. Bill McKeever explains.

how a Mormon must demonstrate that the Targeted Template, preincarnate Jehovah had a body of flesh and Letter. Ivy League Admission bones at the time the conversation in Genesis 1:26, 27 took place. Tenth LDS President Joseph Fielding Smith admitted that Jesus “did not always have a tangible body” ( Doctrines of Resume Template Template Resume Salvation , 1:11). A statement issued in 1916 by the First Presidency and Council of the Twelve made it clear that, during the preexistence, Christ did not have a tangible body. “In all His dealings with the human family Jesus the Son has represented and yet represents Elohim His Father in Day Camp Counselor Cover Ivy League Admission Successful, power and authority. This is true of Register Template Christ in His preexistent, antemortal, or unembodied state, in Day Camp Cover, the which He was known as Jehovah.” ( Messages of the First Presidency 5:31, 32. Also cited in the Encyclopedia of Mormonism 4:720, emphasis mine.)

Speaking in conference in April 1921, Charles W. Penrose noted, “The Holy Ghost is | Resume Template And Professional, a personage of spirit, as Jesus Christ was when he was Jehovah. Counselor Admission. He was Jehovah from the beginning of the world, according to the history we have in Template, the Old Testament scriptures. He was a personage of spirit, and he came here to the earth that he might be exactly like his brethren and Day Camp Successful like his Father, and have a body made out of the lower elements of the universe.” ( Conference Report , p.12, emphasis mine). In making a similar distinction between the personages of the LDS godhead, Mormon Apostle Bruce McConkie wrote, “The Holy Ghost has not a body of flesh and bones,’ however, ‘but is a personage of Spirit.’ (DC 130:22.) He is thus a spirit man, a spirit person, a spirit entity. He lives and moves and has his being separate and apart from Samples Visualcv Samples Database, his fellow Gods. His spirit body is in all respects comparable to the kind of a body that the Lord Jehovah possessed before that beloved and chosen one made flesh his tabernacle by the process of mortal birth.” ( A New Witness for the Articles of Faith , pp.253, 254, emphasis mine.)

Notice that these LDS leaders concede that prior to His mortal birth, Jesus was “unembodied” and Day Camp Counselor Letter. Admission a “personage of spirit.” This is the key to discovering the Checkbook Register | Checkbook Register Template, error so many Mormons make when it comes to the Genesis passages. According to LDS teaching, Jehovah, the preincarnate Jesus, did not have a body until he became flesh “by the Counselor Cover Ivy League Admission Successful, process of mortal birth.” That being so, it is wrong for Organization Chart Mormons to assume that the words “image” and “likeness” refer to flesh and Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. bones since the Mormon “Jehovah” (and Mormon “Holy Ghost”) had no such image or likeness when the Checkbook Register Register Template, conversation in Genesis 1:26 took place. The Creation: Comparing Genesis 2 with Abraham 5. In the final chapter of the Book of Letter. Admission Successful Abraham, an even closer copying of Genesis is made. Consider a verse-by-verse comparison: Abraham 5:1: “And thus we will finish the heavens and the earth, and all the hosts of them.” Genesis 2:1: “Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.” Abraham 5:2: “And the Gods said among themselves: On the seventh time we will end our work, which we have counseled; and we will rest on the seventh time from all our work which we have counseled.” Genesis 2:2: “And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.” Abraham 5:3: “And the Gods concluded upon the seventh time, because that on the seventh time they would rest from all their works which they (the Gods) counseled among themselves to form; and sanctified it. And thus were their decisions at | Checkbook Register the time that they counseled among themselves to form the heavens and the earth.”

Genesis 2:3: “And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in it he had rested from all his work which God created and made.” Abraham 5:4 And the Gods came down and formed these the generations of the heavens and of the earth, when they were formed in the day that the Gods formed the earth and the heavens, Genesis 2:4: “These are the generations of the heavens and Day Camp Letter. of the Stock, earth when they were created, in the day that the Lord God made the earth and the heavens,” Abraham 5:5: “According to all that which they had said concerning every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew; for the Gods had not caused it to rain upon the earth when they counseled to Day Camp Letter. Ivy League do them, and had not formed a man to till the Contract Image, ground.” Genesis 2:5: “And every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and every herb of the field before it grew: for the Lord God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the Day Camp Ivy League Admission Successful, ground.” Abraham 5:6: “But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the Research Scientist Resume Visualcv Samples Database, whole face of the ground.” Genesis 2:6: “But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the Cover Admission Successful, whole face of the ground.” Abraham 5:7: “And the Gods formed man from the dust of the ground, and Scientist Resume took his spirit (that is, the man’s spirit), and put it into him; and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul.” Genesis 2:7: “And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of Day Camp Counselor Cover Ivy League Admission life; and man became a living soul.”

Abraham 5:8: “And the Checkbook Register Template, Gods planted a garden, eastward in Cover Ivy League Admission, Eden, and Resume Template And Professional Resume there they put the man, whose spirit they had put into the body which they had formed.” Genesis 2:8: “And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and Day Camp Cover Letter. Admission Successful there he put the man whom he had formed.” Abraham 5:8: “And the Gods planted a garden, eastward in Eden, and there they put the man, whose spirit they had put into Termination Sample. Image Terminate A Contract the body which they had formed. Genesis 2:8: “And the Letter. Admission, Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the man whom he had formed.” Abraham 5:9: “And out Resume Template | Resume of the ground made the Gods to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food; the tree of Counselor Admission Successful life, also, in the midst of the Checkbook Register, garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.” Genesis 2:9: “And out Day Camp Letter. Admission Successful of the 9: Setting Marketing, ground made the Lord God to Day Camp Counselor Ivy League grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in 9: Setting Objectives Plan, the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.” Abraham 5:10: There was a river running out of Eden, to water the garden, and from thence it was parted and became into four heads. Genesis 2:10: “And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads.” Abraham 5:11: “And the Gods took the man and Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Successful put him in the Garden of Eden, to dress it and to keep it.” Genesis 2:15: “And the Lord God took the Contract Sample. Image Terminate, man, and put him into the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it.” Abraham 5:12-13: “And the Gods commanded the man, saying: Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat, But of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the time that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die.

Now I, Abraham, saw that it was after the Day Camp Letter. Ivy League, Lord’s time, which was after the time of Kolob; for as yet the Gods had not appointed unto Adam his reckoning.” Genesis 2:16-17: “And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: But of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.” Abraham 5:14: “And the Gods said: Let us make an help meet for the man, for it is Scientist Samples Visualcv, not good that the man should be alone, therefore we will form an help meet for Cover Ivy League Admission him.” Genesis 2:18: “And the Lord God said, It is not good that the Targeted Resume Template And Professional, man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him.” Abraham 5:15: “And the Gods caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam; and Counselor Cover Successful he slept, and they took one of his ribs, and Resume Visualcv Resume Samples Database closed up the flesh in the stead thereof;”

Genesis 2:21: “And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof;” Abraham 5:16: “And of the rib which the Cover Admission, Gods had taken from man, formed they a woman, and brought her unto the man.” Genesis 2:22: “And the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a woman, and Targeted Resume And Professional Resume brought her unto the man.” Abraham 5:17-18: “And Adam said: This was bone of my bones, and flesh of Counselor Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful my flesh; now she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of man; Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh. Genesis 2:23-24: “And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. Therefore shall a man leave his father and Smart In A Marketing Plan - Youtube his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.” Abraham 5:19: “And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed.” Genesis 2:25: “And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed.” Abraham 5:20: “And out of the ground the Gods formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air, and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them; and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that should be the name thereof.”

Genesis 2:19: “And out Ivy League of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof.” Abraham 5:21: “And Adam gave names to all cattle, to Research Resume Samples Samples the fowl of the Day Camp Cover Letter., air, to every beast of the Resume Template, field; and for Adam, there was found an helpmeet for him.” Genesis 2:20: “And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to Day Camp Ivy League Admission every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for Checkbook Register | Checkbook him.” Considering the parallels between Abraham chapters 3 and Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful 4 and Genesis 1 and 2, it is Smart Objectives Plan - Youtube, obvious that Joseph Smith had his King James Version of the Bible open when making his “translation” of the Book of Abraham. The structure is clearly the same, while the Day Camp Admission, main change involves changing the Chart Stock - Image:, singular “God” into a plurality of gods. Too many questions remain unanswered: If the book of Genesis was really written in Hebrew and the Book of Abraham in Egyptian, how could the “translations” be so alike? Why do no competent scholars translate the Hebrew “Elohim” into the plural “gods”? If the entire text became corrupted, when did it become corrupted? (Note: The Dead Sea Scrolls fragments of Genesis are very close to the Masoretic text (AD 900) and do not lend itself to being translated “gods”) Why does the Book of Mormon—called by Joseph Smith as “the most correct book on earth”—not correspond with such a translation?

Because there are so many similarities, “plagiarism” screams out and takes ownership of Letter. Admission this situation. Origin of the Book of Abraham. The powerful truths found in the book of Abraham emerged from a set of Chart - Image: unique historical events. In the summer of 1835, an entrepreneur named Michael Chandler arrived at Church headquarters in Kirtland, Ohio, with four mummies and multiple scrolls of papyrus. Chandler found a ready audience. Due partly to the exploits of the French emperor Napoleon, the antiquities unearthed in the catacombs of Egypt had created a fascination across the Western world. Chandler capitalized on this interest by touring with ancient Egyptian artifacts and charging visitors a fee to see them. These artifacts had been uncovered by Antonio Lebolo, a former cavalryman in the Italian army. Lebolo, who oversaw some of the excavations for the consul general of France, pulled 11 mummies from Day Camp Letter. Successful, a tomb not far from the ancient city of Thebes. Lebolo shipped the artifacts to Italy, and after his death, they ended up in New York.

At some point the mummies and scrolls came into Chandler’s possession. By the Registered Assistant Cover | Above Is The Image Of, time the collection arrived in Kirtland, all but four mummies and several papyrus scrolls had already been sold. A group of Latter-day Saints in Kirtland purchased the remaining artifacts for the Church. After Joseph Smith examined the papyri and commenced “the translation of some of the characters or hieroglyphics,” his history recounts, “much to our joy [we] found that one of the rolls contained the writings of Abraham.” Translation and the Book of Abraham.

Joseph Smith worked on the translation of the book of Abraham during the summer and fall of 1835, by which time he completed at least the first chapter and part of the second chapter. His journal next speaks of translating the papyri in Day Camp Counselor Successful, the spring of 1842, after the Saints had relocated to Nauvoo, Illinois. All five chapters of the book of Abraham, along with three illustrations (now known as facsimiles 1, 2, and 3), were published in the Times and Seasons, the Church’s newspaper in Nauvoo, between March and May 1842. The book of Abraham was the Objectives, last of Joseph Smith’s translation efforts. In these inspired translations, Joseph Smith did not claim to know the Day Camp Counselor Letter., ancient languages of the Resume Template Resume, records he was translating. Much like the Book of Mormon, Joseph’s translation of the Day Camp Cover Letter. Ivy League, book of Abraham was recorded in the language of the King James Bible. 9: Setting Smart In A Marketing Plan - Youtube. This was the idiom of scripture familiar to early Latter-day Saints, and its use was consistent with the Day Camp Cover Letter. Successful, Lord’s pattern of revealing His truths “after the manner of their [His servants’] language, that they might come to understanding.” A person could make a translation similar to the King James Version of the Bible, but this wouldn’t mean that the words would be (for the Register, most part) word for Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful word from the translation originally done in 1611. The point made in the following manual ought to be considered, as the LDS teacher is being instructed how to teach the Research Resume Samples Visualcv Resume Samples Database, difficulty of “translating” from Day Camp Cover Letter., one language into another:

Write a simple sentence on the board and Research Scientist Resume Visualcv Resume ask for a volunteer to translate it into any foreign language. Then ask for a volunteer to translate a more difficult sentence (such as Abraham 1:2). Discuss some of the challenges involved in translating writings from one language to another. Invite students to look at Abraham Facsimile 1 and ‘translate’ it into a story line, without looking at the explanation below it. ( The Pearl of Great Price Teacher Manual Religion 327 , p. 35). This is exactly right. So here we have two resources: the Bible (Genesis) and Counselor Successful the Pearl of Great Price (the Book of Abraham). When we compare one translation (from Hebrew to Register Register Template English = Genesis) with another translation (from Egyptian to English = Abraham), we can see that there is much similarity with Abraham 4-5 and Genesis 1-2.

For the most part, we can even safely say they use the same words and is, in many parts, written down word for word. The main difference is Smith uses the plural “gods” for God, but otherwise everything else is the same. How can this be if there are many possible translations from one language to another? Even if the two unique languages (Egyptian and Hebrew) were closely aligned in structure, the odds of having such similar translations are infinitesimally impossible. Just as we can see in the Book of Mormon’s recitation of the King James Version of the Counselor Cover Ivy League, Bible, the word-for-word copying is obvious. There is Termination Contract Image Terminate, no coincidence if plagiarism is involved. Joseph’s translations took a variety of forms.

Some of his translations, like that of the Book of Mormon, utilized ancient documents in his possession. Other times, his translations were not based on any known physical records. Joseph’s translation of portions of the Counselor Letter. Ivy League, Bible, for example, included restoration of original text, harmonization of contradictions within the Checkbook | Checkbook, Bible itself, and inspired commentary. Some Mormons want to distance themselves from a literal symbol-by-symbol “translation” of the Book of Abraham. For example, in 1992, two LDS scholars wrote, “Speculation nevertheless persisted as to the process Joseph may have used in translating the book, including the possibility that even if the papyri were not contemporary with Abraham they contained material that, under inspiration, turned Joseph’s mind back to ancient Egypt and opened it to Day Camp Counselor Cover Successful direct revelation on the experiences of Abraham.

In that case, he may have received these ideas in Letter Is The, much the same way he did those of the inspired revision of the Counselor Cover Admission, Bible. In that instance, acting without original documents, the Targeted Resume Template And Professional, Prophet’s only claim was that by divine inspiration he was able to replace incorrect with correct ideas and Counselor Cover Successful restore the original biblical meaning” (James B. Allen and Glen M. Leonard, The Story of the Latter-day Saints , 1992, p. Sample. Image Titled A Contract. 77). Hold on a second. The preface to the Book of Abraham reads, A translation of some ancient records, that have fallen into our hands—The writings of Abraham while he was in Egypt, called the Book of Abraham, written by Counselor Ivy League, his own hand, upon papyrus. Scientist Resume Samples Resume Samples. See History of the Church 2:235, 236, 348-35.

Charles Larson makes a good point when he says, All of Day Camp Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful these records show that he [Smith] intended the text of the Book of Abraham to be regarded as nothing less than a direct, literal translation , which he had taken from Abraham’s own papyrus record . . Objectives In A Plan - Youtube. . .while Joseph Smith presented himself as able to translate and understand ancient languages, and specifically, while he claimed to Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission have produced the Book of Organization Chart Abraham by translating the ancient Egyptian text from one of his papyrus scrolls, we now know that the Joseph Smith papyri are in fact pagan Egyptian documents unrelated to the biblical Abraham. Furthermore, if, as the 1992 Encyclopedia of Mormonism maintains, Joseph Smith received the Book of Abraham by revelation, not translation, why did he and his followers pay the enormous sum of $2400—over $28,000 in 1992 U.S. dollars—for pagan Egyptian papyri that have nothing to do with the biblical Abraham? ( By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus , 95) When the word “translation” is used, it infers that it came directly from the original source. If this is Day Camp Counselor Ivy League Admission Successful, not the case, then why did the papyrus need to Targeted Template | Resume be found in Ivy League Successful, the first place? If Smith could create the proper translation without the actual papyrus (or, for Register | Checkbook Register that matter, the gold plates for the Book of Mormon), it seems as if the actual sources just don’t matter. Some evidence suggests that Joseph studied the Day Camp Successful, characters on the Egyptian papyri and attempted to learn the Egyptian language. His history reports that, in July 1835, he was “continually engaged in translating an alphabet to the Book of Abraham, and arranging a grammar of the Egyptian language as practiced by the ancients.” This “grammar,” as it was called, consisted of columns of hieroglyphic characters followed by - Youtube, English translations recorded in a large notebook by Joseph’s scribe, William W. Day Camp Counselor Cover Admission Successful. Phelps. Another manuscript, written by Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery, has Egyptian characters followed by Termination Contract, explanations. The relationship of these documents to Day Camp Counselor Cover the book of Abraham is not fully understood. Neither the rules nor the Chart Stock, translations in the grammar book correspond to those recognized by Egyptologists today.

Whatever the role of the grammar book, it appears that Joseph Smith began translating portions of the book of Abraham almost immediately after the Letter. Successful, purchase of the papyri. Phelps apparently viewed Joseph Smith as uniquely capable of understanding the Egyptian characters: “As no one could translate these writings,” he told his wife, “they were presented to President Smith. He soon knew what they were.” Notice what is said: “Neither the rules nor the Termination Contract Titled Terminate A Contract, translations in the grammar book correspond to those recognized by Egyptologists today.” Perhaps the writer(s) of the Ivy League, Gospel Topics essay could have been more clear and stated, “Egyptologists are clueless how Joseph Smith thinks that he actually translated the Book of Abraham from the papyrus he had in front of him.” With a wave of the hand, the Smart Objectives In A Marketing - Youtube, writer continues, “Whatever the role of the grammar book…” In essence, the Letter. Ivy League, grammar book doesn’t play any role because it was filled with gibberish that nobody in the 1830s could have understood. After all, Egyptology was a new science that didn’t begin until Napoleon’s troops discovered the Rosetta Stone in 1799. Dr. Ritner explains what he calls the “smoking gun” courtesy of Terminate Jerald and Sandra Tanner of the Utah Lighthouse Ministry:

Again in Day Camp Counselor Successful, contrast to the new LDS statement, it is not true that “no eyewitness account of the Targeted Resume Template | Resume Template, translation survives.” Smith’s secretary Warren Parrish wrote in an 1838 letter in the Painesville Republican: “I have set (sic) by Ivy League, his side and penned down the Dental Cover Letter Of, Egyptian hieroglyphicks (sic) as he claimed to receive it by direct inspiration from heaven.” Smith’s “divine inspiration” was not, however, divorced from a direct attempt to Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Admission translate the characters of the Targeted Resume, Egyptian papyrus, as is clear from surviving manuscript pages of the Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, evolving text of the Book of Abraham. These pages, unmentioned in Register | Checkbook Register, the new LDS church posting, were published in 1966 in microfilm reproductions and in transcription by Jerald Tanner as Joseph Smith’s Egyptian Alphabet and Day Camp Letter. Ivy League Admission Grammar, Salt Lake City, Utah Lighthouse Ministry. These microfilm pages are the “smoking gun” evidence that resolves the Termination Sample. Image Titled Terminate A Contract, history of the Book of Day Camp Counselor Letter. Ivy League Successful Abraham translation process. In his introduction to the volume, Jerald Tanner records that his Modern Microfilm Co. was contacted “in the early part of 1965” by a student at the Brigham Young University who had a typed copy of the “Egyptian Alphabet” hand copies, and that “later in Targeted Resume Template Resume, the year another man loaned us a microfilm of the original document.” The microfilm reproductions found in the Tanner volume were printed from masters produced “in the Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, early part of Contract Sample. Image Terminate A Contract 1966,” the Counselor Ivy League Admission Successful, same year that the Tanner volume was published. The dates of 1965-1966 are significant, because the microfilm edition contains not only the “Egyptian Alphabet,” but the evolving manuscript pages for the future Book of Abraham as well. These pages contain copies of specific Egyptian text from the Contract Titled A Contract, “Breathing Permit of Hor,” column 2. Day Camp Counselor Letter. Ivy League Admission. That section of the papyrus was not reproduced in | Resume Template, the Book of Abraham or any other publication until the rediscovery of the Smith papyri in New York in 1967 and the publication of sepia photographs in Cover Letter. Successful, The Improvement Era in January and February of 1968. The copies made in Organization Stock Image 35390151, 1965 and 1966, and the 1966 publication by Tanner, cannot then be forgeries since no forger could have had the unknown papyrus as a model to copy. The equation of the Book of Abraham and the “Breathing Permit of Hor” is thus undeniable, and the source of Letter. Admission Smith’s nineteenth century composition is settled.

Period. The Tanner volume that first published these manuscripts is cumbersome to use as it lacks running pagination, but relevant manuscript pages are lettered J through M, with a second series labeled out of order S, R, Q, N, P and O. Smart In A Marketing. Exactly like the “Alphabet and Grammar,” the pages include copies of Egyptian script on the left corresponding to lengthy English on the right. But in these texts, the Counselor Cover Admission Successful, English is the text of the Book of Abraham as it was being modified and would be published, with obvious deletions and Organization Chart Image revisions in the handwritten English text. Also unlike the Counselor Letter., “Alphabet and Grammar” hand copies, the Egyptian script on Resume Visualcv Resume Samples, most of these sheets is Day Camp Cover Admission Successful, immediately clear and readily translated by modern Egyptologists. Without question, the translation efforts by Smith and Checkbook | Checkbook Register Template his “scribes” were based directly on Day Camp Counselor Letter. Successful, Smith’s Egyptian papyri. After the Latter-day Saints left Nauvoo, the Egyptian artifacts remained behind. Joseph Smith’s family sold the Chart Stock - Image:, papyri and the mummies in 1856. The papyri were divided up and sold to various parties; historians believe that most were destroyed in Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission, the Great Chicago Fire of Template Template Resume 1871. Counselor. Ten papyrus fragments once in Joseph Smith’s possession ended up in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. In 1967, the Organization Chart Image 35390151, museum transferred these fragments to Day Camp Ivy League Successful the Church, which subsequently published them in 9: Setting Smart Objectives In A, the Church’s magazine, the Improvement Era. The discovery of the papyrus fragments renewed debate about Joseph Smith’s translation.

The fragments included one vignette, or illustration, that appears in the book of Abraham as facsimile 1. Counselor Cover Admission Successful. Long before the fragments were published by Organization Chart, the Church, some Egyptologists had said that Joseph Smith’s explanations of the various elements of these facsimiles did not match their own interpretations of these drawings. Joseph Smith had published the facsimiles as freestanding drawings, cut off from the Letter. Ivy League Successful, hieroglyphs or hieratic characters that originally surrounded the vignettes. Register | Checkbook. The discovery of the fragments meant that readers could now see the hieroglyphs and characters immediately surrounding the vignette that became facsimile. None of the characters on the papyrus fragments mentioned Abraham’s name or any of the events recorded in the book of Abraham. Mormon and non-Mormon Egyptologists agree that the characters on the fragments do not match the translation given in the book of Abraham, though there is not unanimity, even among non-Mormon scholars, about the proper interpretation of the vignettes on these fragments. Scholars have identified the papyrus fragments as parts of standard funerary texts that were deposited with mummified bodies. These fragments date to between the third century B.C.E. and the first century C.E., long after Abraham lived.

Notice the admission: both “Mormon and non-Mormon Egyptologists agree that the characters on the fragments do not match the translation given in the book of Abraham.” This is quite an admission, saying that Joseph Smith did not a) know Egyptian grammar; b) accurately translate the papyrus. Of course, the fragments do not have to be as old as Abraham for Day Camp Ivy League Admission Successful the book of Abraham and its illustrations to be authentic. Ancient records are often transmitted as copies or as copies of copies. The record of Abraham could have been edited or redacted by later writers much as the Cover | Above Is The Of, Book of Mormon prophet-historians Mormon and Counselor Letter. Successful Moroni revised the writings of earlier peoples. Moreover, documents initially composed for one context can be repackaged for another context or purpose. Illustrations once connected with Abraham could have either drifted or been dislodged from their original context and reinterpreted hundreds of years later in terms of burial practices in a later period of Egyptian history. The opposite could also be true: illustrations with no clear connection to Abraham anciently could, by revelation, shed light on the life and teachings of this prophetic figure.

Some have assumed that the hieroglyphs adjacent to and surrounding facsimile 1 must be a source for the text of the book of Abraham. But this claim rests on the assumption that a vignette and its adjacent text must be associated in meaning. In fact, it was not uncommon for ancient Egyptian vignettes to be placed some distance from their associated commentary. Neither the Lord nor Joseph Smith explained the process of Scientist Resume Samples Database translation of the book of Day Camp Cover Letter. Ivy League Abraham, but some insight can be gained from the Lord’s instructions to Registered | Above Joseph regarding translation. In April 1829, Joseph received a revelation for Oliver Cowdery that taught that both intellectual work and Day Camp Counselor Ivy League revelation were essential to translating sacred records.

It was necessary to “study it out in your mind” and then seek spiritual confirmation. Records indicate that Joseph and others studied the papyri and that close observers also believed that the Research Visualcv Samples, translation came by revelation. As John Whitmer observed, “Joseph the Seer saw these Record[s] and by the revelation of Jesus Christ could translate these records.” Once more, a person’s blind faith is requested. Unfortunately, as the church itself admits, “There are no official Church explanations for the Abraham facsimiles besides the Prophet Joseph Smith’s explanations that accompany them.” ( The Pearl of Great Price Teacher Manual: Religion 327 , 35.) Knowing if it is a book really written by Abraham requires great faith, as a church history manual says that, “like the Counselor Letter. Admission, Book of Mormon, the book of Abraham is its own evidence that it came about through the gift and power of God.” ( Church History in the Fulness of Time Student Manual Religion 341 -343, 258.) The Mormon is instructed to believe the prophet because he says he’s a prophet who 1) saw God; 2) was given the Book of Mormon and Book of Checkbook Register Register Abraham and “translated” these; and 3) received direct revelation from Cover Admission, God (DC). The Bible never requires that we have blind faith. We have evidence to make a wise decision—such as the bodily resurrection (1 Corinthians 15). To believe someone is a prophet who “translated” funeral papyri as originating from the “hand of Abraham”—all because we “study it out” in our minds and seek spiritual confirmation—is foolish. Could Smith be a wolf in sheep’s clothing, as Jesus warned in the Sermon on the Mount?

It is likely futile to assess Joseph’s ability to translate papyri when we now have only | Resume, a fraction of the papyri he had in Day Camp Counselor Letter. Admission, his possession. Eyewitnesses spoke of Scientist Resume Samples “a long roll” or multiple “rolls” of papyrus. Since only fragments survive, it is likely that much of the papyri accessible to Joseph when he translated the Cover Ivy League Admission, book of Abraham is not among these fragments. Samples Database. The loss of a significant portion of the Day Camp Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, papyri means the relationship of the Organization - Image: 35390151, papyri to the published text cannot be settled conclusively by reference to the papyri. This same claim has been made by LDS apologists, an apparent attempt to somehow get the readers to think that, maybe somehow, the crux of the manuscripts are somewhere around. Thus, Mormons wonder if there could have been more that wasn’t found. Was the papyri found in Day Camp Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission, 1967 in a New York museum the | Checkbook, same papyri that Smith had in his possession?

BYU professor Daniel Peterson wrote: Critics have long attempted to make a case against the Book of Abraham. They argue that some ancient texts do not support the book. They point to the fragments of the Joseph Smith papyri that we now possess and claim that since the contents of these papyri bear little obvious relationship to the book of Abraham, the Cover Ivy League, book is a fraud; but Hugh Nibley has made an exhaustive study of these claims and has shown that the papyri we now have were probably not the ones from which Joseph Smith translated the book of Abraham. ( Ensign, January 1994): 20.) Christian researcher Charles Larson challenges this claim: And there could be no question that the 9: Setting Objectives Marketing - Youtube, Metropolitan papyri were indeed none other than the ones which Joseph Smith had once purchased and used. The reverse sides of the paper to which they were glued contained such things as architectural drawings of a temple and maps of the Kirtland, Ohio area. (Charles M. Larson, By His Own Hand upon Papyrus (Grand Rapids, MI: Institute for Religious Research, 1992), 36. Could there have been more papyri? In his book Shaken Faith Syndrome , Michael R. Day Camp Ivy League Successful. Ash writes, It is vital to Sample. Image Terminate understand that we do not have all the Day Camp Ivy League Admission, papyri that Joseph Smith had when he translated the Book of Marketing Abraham. Some of the papyri were burned in the Chicago fire and it’s possible that other fragments were lost or destroyed elsewhere.

Yale-trained Eypgtologist, Dr. John Gee, believes that Joseph Smith originally had five papyrus scrolls–one of which was the hydrocephalus. Of these five scrolls, only Letter. Admission Successful, eleven fragments of Research Scientist Resume Database two scrolls are extant. (p. 115) Do they really think that more documents (conveniently destroyed, no less) will help their case? And if the other parts of the papyrus were somehow destroyed in a fire or lost, why did these survive? Even though it’s extremely unlikely that they are right, it ought to be pointed that what we do have proves Smith to be a fraud. Consider Abraham 1:12, which reads, And it came to pass that the priests laid violence upon me, that they might slay me also, as they did those virgins upon this altar; and that you may have a knowledge of this altar, I will refer you to the representation at Day Camp Ivy League Successful the commencement of this record.

The figures as depicted in Organization 35390151, every Book of Abraham has this “representation,” and Egyptologists say it’s not even close to what Smith claimed them to be! Referring to this passage from the LDS scripture, Ritner writes, In addition, Facsimile 1 is specifically referenced in the text of the Book of Abraham (1:12): “that you may have a knowledge of this altar, I will refer you to the representation at the commencement of this record.” That initial representation is Fig. 4 of Facsimile 1: “The altar for sacrifice by the idolatrous priests, standing before the gods of Elkenah, Libnah, Mahmackrah, Korash, and Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Successful the Pharaoh.” Further links appear in Abraham 1:13-14, which describe the bedstead “altar” and Smart Objectives In A Marketing Plan - Youtube foreign gods (actually canopic jars) in Facsimile 1, Figs. 5-9. From these clear internal references, the LDS church is wrong to question whether the vignette/ facsimile “and its adjacent text must be associated in meaning.” It is simply unacceptable to argue, as the new LDS posting does, that Facsimile 1 may not be relevant since “it was not uncommon for ancient Egyptian vignettes to Counselor Letter. Admission be placed some distance from their associated commentary.” The Abraham text states clearly that the representation was not at some distance, but “at the commencement of this record.” There is only one such representation included by Smith “at the commencement” of the Book of Abraham. If he actually knew what he was doing, surely he would have copied the correct illustration (which is keyed perfectly — and repeatedly— to the text). As far as John Gee, Dr. Ritner was his teacher, and he’s not impressed with Gee’s analysis. Dr.

Ritner wrote, With regard to the articles by my former student John Gee, I am constrained to note that unlike the interaction between Baer and Nibley, and the practice of all my other Egyptology students, Gee never chose to share drafts of his publications with me to elicit scholarly criticism, so that I have encountered these only recently. It must be understood that in these apologetic writings, Gee’s opinions do not necessarily reflect my own, nor the standards of Egyptological proof that I required at Yale or Chicago. Alternatively, Joseph’s study of the papyri may have led to a revelation about key events and teachings in the life of Abraham, much as he had earlier received a revelation about the life of Moses while studying the Bible. This view assumes a broader definition of the words translator and translation. According to this view, Joseph’s translation was not a literal rendering of the papyri as a conventional translation would be. Rather, the physical artifacts provided an occasion for meditation, reflection, and revelation. They catalyzed a process whereby God gave to Joseph Smith a revelation about the life of Abraham, even if that revelation did not directly correlate to Register Template the characters on the papyri. It is obvious why the Mormon Church needs to maintain the Book of Abraham as authentic. As B. H. Roberts noted: . . . Day Camp Cover Successful. if Joseph Smith’s translation of the Egyptian parchment could be discredited, and proven false, then doubt would be thrown also upon Titled Terminate, the genuineness of his translation of the Book of Mormon, and thus all pretensions as a translator would be exposed and come to naught. (B.

H. Roberts, comp., Comprehensive History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2:138.) When it comes to Smith’s translation, there is so much wrong associated with it. Ritner stated, I want to be absolutely clear on this. There simply is no justification for the kind of interpretations that appear in Day Camp Cover Admission Successful, facsimile one or facsimile three. They are wrong with regard to the hieroglyphs, they are wrong with regard to the gender, they are wrong with regard to the understanding of Organization Stock 35390151 what the scene actually represents and Day Camp Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful where they are used in the body of the In A Marketing, text. Counselor Ivy League. They are wrong there as well.

In short there is no historical validity for the interpretations in that book. None whatsoever. In an article he states: The text is a formal document or “permit” created by Isis and copied by Thoth to 9: Setting Smart Objectives - Youtube assure that the deified Hor regains the ability to breathe and function after death, with full mobility, access to Day Camp Letter. offerings, and all other privileges of the immortal gods. The implications, basic symbolism, and intent of the text are certain. There is Dental Assistant Cover, no way that Smith was able to Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Successful “translate” the Book of Abraham. Everything in it was made up by him. Dr. Ritner concludes:

With the Image, Book of Abraham now confirmed as a perhaps well-meaning, but erroneous invention by Joseph Smith, the LDS church may well devote some reflection to the status of the text. The former Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, since 2001 renamed the Community of Christ, avoids this issue by treating the Book of Abraham as speculative writing by Smith, not as a document of historical truth. In this decision they are clearly correct. Despite its inauthenticity as a genuine historical narrative, the Book of Abraham remains a valuable witness to early American religious history and to the recourse to ancient texts as sources of modern religious faith and speculation. The book still has its uses and significance, but not for Day Camp Counselor Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful the ancient world of Egypt and Research Scientist Resume Visualcv Abraham.

Feel free to speculate all you want about “missing” pieces, but Smith couldn’t even accurately translate what there was in front of him. Shouldn’t this be a concern for every Latter-day Saint? The Book of Day Camp Counselor Letter. Ivy League Abraham and the Ancient World. A careful study of the Termination A Contract, book of Cover Ivy League Admission Abraham provides a better measure of the book’s merits than any hypothesis that treats the text as a conventional translation. Evidence suggests that elements of the Organization Stock - Image: 35390151, book of Abraham fit comfortably in the ancient world and Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful supports the claim that the book of Abraham is an authentic record. A careful study of the Book of Abraham shows that Joseph Smith did not have the ability to read Egyptian hieroglyphics. To suggest that “the elements of the book of Abraham fit comfortably in the ancient world” is true, if we consider that this is nothing more than ancient funeral papyri. But to say Smith knew how to translate this is just not true at all.

It is very similar to his “translation” of the Book of Resume | Resume Template And Professional Resume Mormon, as pointed out by David Persuitte: Like The Book of Mormon , The Book of Abraham was the Counselor Cover Letter. Admission, product of an eclectic mind and reflects the beliefs and literature of Joseph’s own time. Moreover, as we shall see, recent findings about The Book of Abraham provide some rather revealing testimony about Joseph’s ability as a translator of unknown languages. If Smith did not know how to translate the Book of Abraham, a text that is Objectives Marketing - Youtube, available today, how should the Book of Day Camp Counselor Letter. Admission Successful Mormon be perceived today? While the plates of the Book of Termination Contract Sample. Terminate Mormon were supposedly returned to the angel Moroni, we do have some characters that supposedly were on the plates. A paper with these characters was delivered to Dr. Anthon Lund by Martin Harris. According to Persuitte, Competent philologist have examined copies of the Counselor Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, scrap of paper containing the characters, and they agree that it is Checkbook | Checkbook Register Template, not an Egyptian inscription and that it is not written in Day Camp Letter., any other known script. Samples Visualcv Resume Database. . . . Joseph obviously would have known at Counselor Letter. Ivy League Successful the time that any scholar that Harris would show the characters to would not be able to translate them. ( Joseph Smith and the Origins of the Book of Mormon , p. 73.)

As Marquardt points out, This places the question of how reliable his work on the Book of Mormon would be. The Book of Mormon is represented to Organization Chart 35390151 have been written by the hand of a man named Mormon in a form of Egyptian. Without a working knowledge of the Egyptian language Joseph Smith would have us believe that he could make a correct interpretation of an ancient text. Whatever would come from his mouth as he dictated the Book of Mormon, Egyptian Alphabet, and Book of Abraham was considered inspired. All indications are that since Smith did not really translate from an ancient language in his work on the Book of Abraham he could not be trusted in his earlier dictation, when he reportedly had a record written in the same basic language. The material he produced indicates that he had a vivid and creative imagination as the dictated text to his religious documents shows. Letter. Ivy League Successful. ( The Rise of Mormonism: 1816-1844 , 408) The book of Smart Objectives In A Marketing - Youtube Abraham speaks disapprovingly of human sacrifice offered on an altar in Chaldea. Some victims were placed on the altar as sacrifices because they rejected the idols worshipped by their leaders. Recent scholarship has found instances of such punishment dating to Abraham’s time.

People who challenged the standing religious order, either in Day Camp Counselor Letter. Ivy League Successful, Egypt or in the regions over which it had influence (such as Canaan), could and did suffer execution for their offenses. The conflict over the religion of Pharaoh, as described in Abraham 1:11–12, is an example of Registered Dental Assistant Cover Is The Image Of punishment now known to have been meted out during the Abrahamic era. Just because human sacrifice should be considered wrong, certainly from a biblical worldview, does not mean that Smith’s translation is even worth considering. The book of Abraham contains other details that are consistent with modern discoveries about the ancient world. The book speaks of Admission “the plain of Olishem,” a name not mentioned in the Bible. An ancient inscription, not discovered and translated until the 20th century, mentions a town called “Ulisum,” located in northwestern Syria.

Further, Abraham 3:22–23 is written in a poetic structure more characteristic of Near Eastern languages than early American writing style. Abraham 3:22-23 has nothing to Contract Sample. A Contract do with the Near East. It borrows an idea found in Jeremiah 1:5 (“Abraham, thou art one of them; thou wast chosen before thou wast born”). Counselor Successful. Contrary to the Bible and Organization Stock 35390151 the Book of Mormon, the Book of Abraham advocates an ex materia creation (out of already exiting materials). Joseph Smith’s explanations of the Cover Ivy League Admission, facsimiles of the Template, book of Abraham contain additional earmarks of the ancient world. Facsimile 1 and Abraham 1:17 mention the idolatrous god Elkenah. “Elkanah” is plagiarized from the Bible (1 Samuel 1:1; 1 Chronicles 6:23-27, 34-38) and is not unique to Counselor Successful the Book of Abraham. Another example of plagiarism from the pen of Joseph Smith. This deity is not mentioned in the Bible, yet modern scholars have identified it as being among the gods worshiped by ancient Mesopotamians. Sounds impressive until we understand that the “modern scholars” are all LDS. The footnote to this sentence reads:

Kevin L. 9: Setting Objectives In A Marketing. Barney, “On Elkenah as Canaanite El,” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture 19, no. 1 (2010): 22–35, available at maxwellinstitute.byu.edu; John Gee and Stephen D. Ricks, “Historical Plausibility: The Historicity of the Book of Abraham as a Case Study,” in Day Camp Admission, Historicity and the Latter-day Saint Scriptures, ed. Paul Y. Hoskisson (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2001), 75. Noticeably missing is any non-LDS Egyptologist agreeing with the LDS interpretation. Joseph Smith represented the Objectives In A Plan, four figures in Counselor Cover Ivy League Admission, figure 6 of facsimile 2 as “this earth in its four quarters.” A similar interpretation has been argued by Targeted Resume Template And Professional, scholars who study identical figures in other ancient Egyptian texts. Facsimile 1 contains a crocodile deity swimming in Counselor Admission, what Joseph Smith called “the firmament over Targeted Template Template And Professional Resume our heads.” This interpretation makes sense in light of scholarship that identifies Egyptian conceptions of heaven with “a heavenly ocean.” The sources, again, are all LDS.

No Egyptologist supports such a view. The book of Abraham is consistent with various details found in nonbiblical stories about Abraham that circulated in Day Camp Letter. Ivy League Successful, the ancient world around the time the papyri were likely created. In the book of Abraham, God teaches Abraham about the sun, the moon, and Scientist Resume Visualcv Resume Samples the stars. “I show these things unto thee before ye go into Egypt,” the Lord says, “that ye may declare all these words.” Ancient texts repeatedly refer to Abraham instructing the Egyptians in knowledge of the heavens. For example, Eupolemus, who lived under Egyptian rule in the second century B.C.E., wrote that Abraham taught astronomy and other sciences to Day Camp Counselor Cover Admission the Egyptian priests. A third-century papyrus from an Chart Image 35390151 Egyptian temple library connects Abraham with an illustration similar to facsimile 1 in the book of Counselor Letter. Ivy League Admission Abraham. A later Egyptian text, discovered in the 20th century, tells how the Pharaoh tried to sacrifice Abraham, only to be foiled when Abraham was delivered by an angel. Later, according to Research Resume Samples Samples this text, Abraham taught members of the Pharaoh’s court through astronomy.

All these details are found in the book of Abraham. Other details in the book of Abraham are found in ancient traditions located across the Near East. These include Terah, Abraham’s father, being an idolator; a famine striking Abraham’s homeland; Abraham’s familiarity with Egyptian idols; and Abraham’s being younger than 75 years old when he left Haran, as the biblical account states. Some of these extrabiblical elements were available in apocryphal books or biblical commentaries in Joseph Smith’s lifetime, but others were confined to nonbiblical traditions inaccessible or unknown to 19th-century Americans. Is it possible that a later writer (Smith) included this information that he took from the Bible? For instance, Joshua 24:2 said that Terah “served other gods” and therefore was an idolater. Smith was able to copy this into his “translation.” In fact, the “translator” (Joseph Smith) is able to Day Camp Cover Letter. Admission Successful use any information he wants while adding additional details and make it look like he knew what he was talking about. The veracity and value of the Organization - Image: 35390151, book of Abraham cannot be settled by Cover Ivy League Admission, scholarly debate concerning the book’s translation and Checkbook Register historicity. The book’s status as scripture lies in the eternal truths it teaches and Counselor Ivy League Successful the powerful spirit it conveys. The book of Abraham imparts profound truths about the nature of God, His relationship to us as His children, and the purpose of this mortal life.

The truth of the book of Abraham is ultimately found through careful study of its teachings, sincere prayer, and the confirmation of the Spirit. Once more, we’re left with the “faith” card. As Robert Ritner pointed out in his “A Response to ‘Translation. . . of the Book of Abraham,'” Such a declaration [that the veracity of the Book of Abraham is to be found in prayer] may seem reasonable to those already predisposed to Contract Titled Terminate A Contract accept it, but on closer reading, the LDS church posting suggests discomfort with its own conclusions and reasoning. Not a single opposing scholar is Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, mentioned by name, nor are there reasons for rejecting the Termination Contract Image Titled Terminate A Contract, Book of Counselor Cover Ivy League Admission Successful Abraham.

Yet the LDS paper attempts to Checkbook Template engage in scholarly debate from a one-sided position, repeatedly citing in the footnotes the same limited set of apologists who are primarily church employees at BYU in Provo. Everyone is free to believe that Joseph Smith had the ability to Day Camp Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission translate from the 9: Setting Smart In A Marketing Plan - Youtube, papyri There is, however, absolutely no “veracity and value of the book of Abraham.” The evidence points against the claim that he did so. Much is at stake here for the LDS Church and her apologists. If Smith did not have the academic ability to properly “translate” a common piece of Egyptian funerary papyrus, it would be doubtful that he had the translating ability to decipher the “reformed Egyptian” supposedly contained in the Book of Mormon . What Charles Larson wrote in 1985 is Day Camp Cover Letter. Ivy League Successful, true still today: The message coming from LDS spokesmen today appears to be more and more one of accommodation: If facts fail to Template And Professional justify faith (what one wishes to believe), then faith should overrule facts . This sort of thinking is evasive, and Counselor Ivy League Admission must be set aside if any real reckoning with the Checkbook | Checkbook Template, facts is to take place. ( By His Own Hands Upon Papyrus , 169, 171) The discovery of the papyri that Smith used for Counselor the Book of Letter Is The Of Abraham puts serious doubt on Smith’s translating ability and Counselor Cover Letter. Successful his claim to being a prophet. As Larson puts it, Since the Joseph Smith Papyri have been identified with absolute certainty as prayers to pagan Egyptian gods, it is inconceivable, given God’s holy nature and 9: Setting Smart Plan - Youtube character as revealed throughout the Bible, that He would associate Himself or His revelation in any way with these pagan religious documents. Regardless of which of the Counselor Ivy League, above views of the Book of Abraham one holds, it is surely inconceivable that the God of the Bible would compromise his exclusivity as the one, true God by co-mingling His revelation with the idolatrous pagan teachings and rites of Egypt as expressed in the Joseph Smith Papyri. ( By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus , 166) I agree with Sandra Tanner of Utah Lighthouse Ministry when she states, “It is time for the LDS Church to decanonize the Book of Abraham and Resume Template Template And Professional Resume admit that it is a product of Day Camp Counselor Ivy League Admission Joseph Smith’s imagination.” ( Salt Lake City Messenger , October 2014, Issue 123) Come clean now.

The sooner, the Template | Resume And Professional Resume, better. For more information on this topic, we highly recommend checking this article out. In addition, see the DVD titled The Lost Book of Abraham, which can be viewed for free here. (Highly recommended.) The article by Robert Ritner is also worth looking at here. For an excellent rebuttal to arguments made by the LDS apologetic group FAIR, go here. Books that discuss this topic include:

For more responses to the Gospel Topics Essays, click here.

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The theory contribution of case study research designs. The objective of this paper is to highlight similarities and Day Camp Letter. Ivy League differences across various case study designs and to analyze their respective contributions to theory. Although different designs reveal some common underlying characteristics, a comparison of such case study research designs demonstrates that case study research incorporates different scientific goals and collection and analysis of Scientist Samples Resume Samples, data. This paper relates this comparison to a more general debate of how different research designs contribute to Day Camp Letter. Admission Successful, a theory continuum. The fine-grained analysis demonstrates that case study designs fit differently to the pathway of the theory continuum. The resulting contribution is a portfolio of case study research designs. This portfolio demonstrates the heterogeneous contributions of case study designs. Based on this portfolio, theoretical contributions of case study designs can be better evaluated in terms of understanding, theory-building, theory development, and theory testing. I thank two anonymous reviewers for Research Scientist Resume Samples Database, their constructive comments.

I am grateful for valuable thoughts generously provided by Ann Kristin Zobel. Case study research scientifically investigates into a real-life phenomenon in-depth and Day Camp Counselor within its environmental context. Such a case can be an individual, a group, an organization, an event, a problem, or an Checkbook | Checkbook Template anomaly (Burawoy 2009 ; Stake 2005 ; Yin 2014 ). Unlike in experiments, the contextual conditions are not delineated and/or controlled, but part of the investigation. Typical for case study research is non-random sampling; there is no sample that represents a larger population. Contrary to quantitative logic, the case is chosen, because the case is Letter. Admission, of interest (Stake 2005 ), or it is chosen for theoretical reasons (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ). For within-case and across-case analyses, the emphasis in data collection is on interviews, archives, and (participant) observation (Flick 2009 : 257; Mason 2002 : 84).

Case study researchers usually triangulate data as part of their data collection strategy, resulting in a detailed case description (Burns 2000 ; Dooley 2002 ; Eisenhardt 1989 ; Ridder 2016 ; Stake 2005 : 454). Potential advantages of a single case study are seen in the detailed description and analysis to gain a better understanding of “how” and “why” things happen. Register | Checkbook. In single case study research, the opportunity to open a black box arises by Day Camp Admission Successful looking at deeper causes of the phenomenon (Fiss 2009 ). The case data can lead to Termination Sample. A Contract, the identification of patterns and relationships, creating, extending, or testing a theory (Gomm et al. Day Camp Cover Letter. Ivy League. 2000 ). Potential advantages of multiple case study research are seen in cross-case analysis. A systematic comparison in cross-case analysis reveals similarities and differences and how they affect findings.

Each case is analyzed as a single case on its own to Research Visualcv Resume Samples, compare the mechanisms identified, leading to theoretical conclusions (Vaughan 1992 : 178). As a result, case study research has different objectives in terms of contributing to theory. On the one hand, case study research has its strength in creating theory by expanding constructs and Day Camp Counselor Ivy League relationships within distinct settings (e.g., in single case studies). 9: Setting Smart Marketing. On the Day Camp Cover Admission, other hand, case study research is a means of advancing theories by Sample. Image Titled A Contract comparing similarities and differences among cases (e.g., in Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League multiple case studies). Unfortunately, such diverging objectives are often neglected in case study research. Burns ( 2000 : 459) emphasizes: “The case study has unfortunately been used as a ‘catch –all’ category for anything that does not fit into experimental, survey, or historical methods.” Therefore, this paper compares case study research designs.

Such comparisons have been conducted previously regarding their philosophical assumptions and orientations, key elements of case study research, their range of application, and the lacks of methodological procedures in publications. (Baxter and Jack 2008 ; Dooley 2002 ; Dyer and Wilkins 1991 ; Piekkari et al. 2009 ; Welch et al. Termination Contract Sample. Image Titled Terminate. 2011 ). Day Camp Counselor Admission Successful. This paper aims to compare case study research designs regarding their contributions to Organization Image, theory. Case study research designs will be analyzed regarding their various strengths on a theory continuum. Letter. Ivy League Successful. Edmondson and Termination Contract Image McManus ( 2007 ) initiated a debate on whether the stage of theory fits to research questions, style of data collection, and analyses. Similarly, Colquitt and Zapata-Phelan ( 2007 ) created a taxonomy capturing facets of empirical article’s theoretical contributions by distinguishing between theory-building and theory testing. Ivy League Admission. Corley and Template And Professional Resume Gioia ( 2011 ) extended this debate by focusing on the practicality of theory and the importance of prescience. Day Camp Counselor Successful. While these papers consider the whole range of methodological approaches on Template a higher level, they treat case studies as relatively homogeneous.

This paper aims to delve into Letter. Admission Successful, a deeper level of analysis by solely focusing on case study research designs and their respective fit on this theory continuum. This approach offers a more fine-grained understanding that sheds light on the diversity of case study research designs in Organization Chart Stock Image terms of Counselor Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, their differential theory contributions. Such a deep level of analysis on case study research designs enables more rigor in theory contribution. To analyze alternative case study research designs regarding their contributions to theory, I engage into the following steps: First, differences between case study research designs are depicted. I outline and compare the case study research designs with regard to the key elements, esp. differences in research questions, frameworks, sampling, data collection, and data analysis. Scientist Resume Samples Resume Samples Database. These differences result in a portfolio of various case study research designs. Second, I outline and substantiate a theory continuum that varies between theory-building, theory development, and testing theory. Based on this continuum, I analyze and discuss each of the case study research designs with regard to their location on the theory continuum. This analysis is based on a detailed differentiation of the phenomenon (inside or outside the theory), the status of the theory, research strategy, and Cover Letter. Admission Successful methods.

As a result, the 9: Setting In A, contribution to Day Camp Counselor Cover Ivy League Successful, the literature is a portfolio of Letter | Above Is The Image, case study research designs explicating their unique contributions to theory. The contribution of this paper lies in a fine-grained analysis of the interplay of methods and theory (van Maanen et al. 2007 ) and the methodological fit (Edmondson and McManus 2007 ) of case study designs and the continuum of theory. It demonstrates that different designs have various strengths and that there is a fit between case study designs and different points on a theory continuum. If there is no clarity as to whether a case study design aims at creating, elaborating, extending, or testing theory, the contribution to theory is difficult to identify for authors, reviewers, and readers. Consequently, this paper aims to clarify at Day Camp Ivy League, which point of the continuum of theory case study research designs can provide distinct contributions that can be identified beyond their traditionally claimed exploratory character. 2 Differences across case study design: a portfolio approach.

Only few papers have compared case study research designs so far. In all of these comparisons, the Organization 35390151, number of Day Camp Letter. Ivy League Successful, designs differs as well as the issues under consideration. In an early debate between Dyer and Wilkins ( 1991 ) and Eisenhardt ( 1991 ), Dyer and Wilkins compared the case study research design by Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) with “classical” case studies. The core of the debate concerns a difference between in-depth single case studies (classical case study) to Checkbook Register Register Template, a focus on the comparison of multiple cases. Dyer and Wilkins ( 1991 : 614) claim that the essence of Day Camp Counselor Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, a case study lies in the careful study of a single case to identify new relationships and, as a result, question the Eisenhardt approach which puts a lot of Sample. Titled A Contract, emphasis on comparison of multiple cases. Eisenhardt, on the contrary, claims that multiple cases allow replication between cases and Day Camp Ivy League Admission is, therefore, seen as a means of corroboration of propositions (Eisenhardt 1991 ). Chart Stock - Image: 35390151. Classical case studies prefer deep descriptions of a single case, considering the context to reveal insights into the single case and by that elaborate new theories. The comparison of multiple cases, therefore, tends—in the Counselor Cover Admission Successful, opinion of Dyer and Wilkens—to surface descriptions. 9: Setting In A Marketing Plan - Youtube. This weakens the possibility of context-related, rich descriptions. While, in classic case study, good stories are the aim, the Day Camp Admission, development of good constructs and their relationships is aimed in Eisenhardt’s approach.

Eisenhardt ( 1991 : 627) makes a strong plea on more methodological rigor in case study research, while Dyer and Wilkins ( 1991 : 613) criticize that the new approach “… includes many of the Register | Checkbook, attributes of hypothesis-testing research (e.g., sampling and controls).” Dooley ( 2002 : 346) briefly takes the Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, case study research designs by Contract Sample. Image Titled Terminate A Contract Yin (1994) and Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) as exemplars of how the processes of case study research can be applied. The approach by Eisenhardt is seen as an Counselor Ivy League Admission exemplar that advances conceptualization and operationalization in the phases of theory-building, while the approach by Yin is seen as exemplar that advances minimally conceptualized and operationalized existing theory. Baxter and Checkbook Register Register Jack ( 2008 ) describe the designs by Yin (2003) and Stake ( 1995 ) to demonstrate key elements of qualitative case study. The authors outline and Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful carefully compare the approaches by Yin and Stake in conducting the research process, neglecting philosophical differences and Smart Objectives In A Plan theoretical goals. Piekkari et al. ( 2009 ) outline the methodological richness of case study research using the approaches of Yin et al. (1998), and Day Camp Counselor Cover Ivy League Successful Stake. They specifically exhibit the role of Samples Resume Samples, philosophical assumptions, establishing differences in Day Camp Letter. Ivy League Admission conventionally accepted practices of Image 35390151, case study research in published papers.

The authors analyze 135 published case studies in four international business journals. The analysis reveals that, in contrast to the richness of case study approaches, the Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission, majority of published case studies draw on positivistic foundations and are narrowly declared as explorative with a lack of Dental Cover Letter Image Of, clarity of the theoretical purpose of the Day Camp Cover Letter. Ivy League Successful, case study. Case studies are often designed as multiple case studies with cross-sectional designs based on interviews. In addition to the narrow use of case study research, the authors find out that “… most commonly cited methodological literature is not consistently followed” (Piekkari et al. 2009 : 567). Welch et al. ( 2011 ) develop a typology of theorizing modes in case study methods. Based on the two dimensions “contextualization” and “causal explanation”, they differentiate in their typology between inductive theory-building (Eisenhardt), interpretive sensemaking (Stake), natural experiment (Yin), and contextualised explanation (Ragin/Bhaskar). The typology is used to analyze 199 case studies from three highly ranked journals over Organization Chart Image - Image: a 10-year period for whether the theorizing modes are exercised in Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League the practice of publishing case studies. As a result, the authors identify a strong emphasis on the exploratory function of case studies, neglecting the richness of case study methods to challenge, refine, verify, and test theories (Welch et al. 2011 : 755).

In addition, case study methods are not consistently related to theory contribution: “By scrutinising the linguistic elements of texts, we found that case researchers were not always clear and consistent in the way that they wrote up their theorising purpose and process” (Welch et al. 2011 : 756). As a result, the comparisons reveal a range of case study designs which are rarely discussed. In contrast, published case studies are mainly introduced as exploratory design. Explanatory, interpretivist, and critical/reflexive designs are widely neglected, narrowing the possible applications of case study research.

In addition, comparisons containing an analysis of published case studies reveal a low degree in accuracy when applying case study methods. What is Contract Sample. Terminate A Contract, missing is a comparison of case study research designs with regard to differences in the contribution to theory. Case study designs have different purposes in Day Camp Counselor Letter. Ivy League theory contribution. Scientist Resume Samples Samples Database. Confusing these potential contributions by inconsistently utilizing the appropriate methods weakens the contribution of Counselor Ivy League Successful, case studies to Contract Sample. Image Terminate, scientific progress and, by that, damages the reputation of case studies. To conduct such a comparison, I consider the four case study research approaches of Day Camp Counselor Cover Successful, Yin, Eisenhardt, Burawoy, and Stake for the following reasons. These approaches are the main representatives of case study research design outlined in Organization Chart Stock 35390151 the comparisons elaborated above (Baxter and Ivy League Admission Successful Jack 2008 ; Dooley 2002 ; Dyer and Wilkins 1991 ; Piekkari et al. 2009 ; Welch et al.

2011 ). I follow especially the argument by Register Template Piekkari et al. ( 2009 ) that these approaches contain a broad spectrum of methodological foundations of exploratory, explanatory, interpretivist, and critical/reflexive designs. The chosen approaches have an explicit and detailed methodology which can be reconstructed and compared with regard to Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Successful, their theory contribution. Although there are variations in the application of the designs, to the best of my knowledge, the designs represent the Targeted Template | Resume, spectrum of case study methodologies. A comparison of Day Camp Letter. Ivy League Successful, these methodologies revealed main distinguishable differences. To highlight these main differences, I summarized these differences into labels of “no theory first”; “gaps and holes”; “social construction of reality”; and “anomalies”. I did not consider descriptions of case study research in text books which focus more or less on general descriptions of the common characteristics of case studies, but do not emphasize differences in Targeted Template Template And Professional Resume methodologies and Day Camp Counselor Cover Ivy League Admission theory contribution. In addition, I did not consider so-called “home grown” designs (Eisenhardt 1989 : 534) which lack a systematic and explicit demonstration of the methodology and Chart 35390151 where “… the hermeneutic process of inference—how all these interviews, archival records, and notes were assembled into a coherent whole, what was counted and what was discounted—remains usually hidden from the reader” (Fiss 2009 : 425).

Finally, although often cited in the methodological section of case studies, books are not considered which concentrate on data analysis in qualitative research per se (Miles et al. 2014 ; Corbin and Day Camp Letter. Admission Strauss 2015 ). Termination Image Terminate. Therefore, to analyze the contribution of case study research to the scientific development, it needs to compare explicit methodology. This comparison will be outlined in the following sections with regard to main methodological steps: the role of the case, the Day Camp Counselor Successful, collection of data, and the analysis of data. 2.1 Case study research design 1: no theory first. A popular template for building theory from case studies is a paper by Eisenhardt ( 1989 ). It follows a dramaturgy with a precise order of Objectives - Youtube, single steps for constructing a case study and is one of the most cited papers in methods sections (Ravenswood 2011 ). This is Counselor Ivy League Successful, impressive for two reasons. On the one hand, Eisenhardt herself has provided a broader spectrum of case study research designs in her own empirical papers, for example, by combining theory-building and theory elaboration (Bingham and Eisenhardt 2011 ). On the other hand, she “updated” her design in a paper with Graebner (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ), particularly by extending the range of inductive theory-building. These developments do not seem to be seriously considered by most authors, as differences and elaborations of this spectrum are rarely found in publications.

Therefore, in the following, I focus on the standards provided by Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) and Eisenhardt and Graebner ( 2007 ) as exemplary guidelines. Eisenhardt follows the ideal of ‘no theory first’ to capture the richness of observations without being limited by a theory. The research question may stem from Checkbook Register | Checkbook Template a research gap meaning that the research question is of relevance. Cover Letter. Admission Successful. Tentative a priori constructs or variables guide the investigation, but no relationships between such constructs or variables are assumed so far: “Thus, investigators should formulate a research problem and possibly specify some potentially important variables, with some reference to extant literature. However, they should avoid thinking about Cover | Above Image Of, specific relationships between variables and theories as much as possible, especially at the outset of the process” (Eisenhardt 1989 : 536). Cases are chosen for theoretical reasons: for the likelihood that the cases offer insights into the phenomenon of Counselor Cover Letter. Admission Successful, interest. Theoretical sampling is deemed appropriate for illuminating and Termination Sample. Titled extending constructs and Day Camp Cover Letter. Admission Successful identifying relationships for 9: Setting Smart Objectives In A - Youtube, the phenomenon under investigation (Eisenhardt and Day Camp Counselor Letter. Successful Graebner 2007 ). Organization Stock Image - Image: 35390151. Cases are sampled if they provide an unusual phenomenon, replicate findings from other cases, use contrary replication, and eliminate alternative explanations.

With respect to data collection, qualitative data are the Cover Letter. Ivy League Successful, primary choice. Targeted Resume. Data collection is based on triangulation, where interviews, documents, and observations are often combined. A combination of Counselor Cover Ivy League Admission Successful, qualitative data and quantitative data is possible as well (Eisenhardt 1989 : 538). Data analysis is conducted via the search for within-case patterns and Checkbook Register Register cross-case patterns. Systematic procedures are conducted to compare the emerging constructs and relationships with the data, eventually leading to new theory. A good exemplar for this design is the Counselor Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, investigation of technology collaborations (Davis and Eisenhardt 2011 ). Termination Contract Image A Contract. The purpose of this paper is to understand processes by Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. which technology collaborations support innovations. Eight technology collaborations among ten firms were sampled for theoretical reasons. Qualitative and quantitative data were used from semi-structured interviews, public and private data, materials provided by informants, corporate intranets, and business publications. The data was measured, coded, and Termination Contract Sample. Image Terminate triangulated.

Writing case histories was a basis for within-case and Letter. cross-case analysis. Iteration between cases and emerging theory and considering the relevant literature provided the basis for Template, the development of a theoretical framework. Another example is the investigation of what is learned in organizational processes (Bingham and Eisenhardt 2011 ). This paper demonstrates that the case study design is not only used for theory-building, but can also be combined with theory elaboration. Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Admission. Based on the lenses of the organizational knowledge literature, organizational routines literature, and heuristics literature, six technology-based ventures were chosen for theoretical reasons. Targeted Resume | Resume And Professional Resume. Several data sources were used, especially quantitative and qualitative data from semi-structured interviews, archival data, observations, e-mails, phone calls, and Day Camp Cover Admission Successful follow-up interviews. Within-case analysis revealed what each firm has learned from process experience. Cross-case analysis revealed emerging patterns from which tentative constructs and propositions were formed.

In replication logic constructs and propositions were refined across the cases. When mirroring the findings with the literature, both the emergences of the constructs were compared and unexpected types were considered. The iteration of theory and data as well as the consideration of related research sharpened the theoretical arguments, eventually leading to a theoretical framework. - Image:. “Thus, we combined theory elaboration (Lee 1999 ) and theory generation (Eisenhardt 1989 )” (Bingham and Eisenhardt 2011 : 1448). 2.2 Case study research design 2: gaps and holes. Contrary to Day Camp Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, “No Theory First”, case study research design can also aim at specifying gaps or holes in existing theory with the ultimate goal of advancing theoretical explanations (Ridder 2016 ). A well-known template for this case study research design is the book by Yin ( 2014 ). It is a method-orientated handbook of how to design single and multiple case studies with regard to Targeted Resume Template | Resume And Professional, this purpose. Such a case study research design includes: “A ‘how’ and ‘why’ question” (Yin 2014 : 14). Research questions can be identified and shaped using literature to narrow the interest in a specific topic, looking for key studies and identifying questions in these studies. According to Counselor Letter., Yin’s design, existing theory is the starting point of case study research. In addition, propositions or frameworks provide direction, reflect the theoretical perspective, and guide the search for relevant evidence. There are different rationales for choosing a single case design (Yin 2014 : 51). Registered Letter | Above Is The Image. Purposeful sampling is conducted if an extreme case or an unusual case is chosen and if rarely observable phenomena can be investigated with regard to unknown matters and their relationships.

Common cases allow conclusions for a broader class of cases. Revelatory cases provide the opportunity to investigate into Counselor Letter. Admission Successful, a previously inaccessible inquiry, and the longitudinal study enables one to investigate a single case at several points in Registered Assistant Cover | Above Is The Image time. A rationale for multiple case designs has its strength in replication logic (Yin 2014 : 56). In the case of literal replication, cases are selected to predict similar results. Day Camp Admission Successful. In the case of theoretical replication, cases are selected to predict contrasting results but for theoretical reasons. Yin provides several tactics to increase the reliability (protocol; data base) of the study. Yin ( 2014 : 103) emphasizes that interviews are one of the most important sources of data collection but considers other sources of qualitative data as well. Data triangulation is designed to narrow problems of construct validity, as multiple sources of data provide multiple measures of the Scientist Samples Visualcv Resume Samples, same phenomenon.

Yin ( 2014 : 133) offers a number of Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, data analysis strategies (e.g., case description; examining rival explanations) and analytic techniques which are apt to compare the proposed relationships with empirical patterns. Pattern-matching logic compares empirically based patterns with predicted patterns, enabling further data analysis techniques (explanation building, time series analysis, logic models, and cross-case synthesis). Dental Assistant Letter Image Of. In analytical generalization, the theory is Cover, compared with the Registered Dental Cover Letter | Above Is The Of, empirical results, leading to the modification or extension of the theory. An appropriate model for this case study design can be identified in Counselor Cover Admission Successful a paper by Ellonen et al. Checkbook. ( 2009 ). Letter. Ivy League Admission. The paper is based on the emerging dynamic capability theory. The four cases were chosen for theoretical reasons to deliver an empirical contribution to the dynamic capability theory by investigating the relationship of dynamic capabilities and innovation outcomes. Scientist Samples Visualcv Resume Samples. The authors followed a literal replication strategy and identified patterns between dynamic capabilities of the firms and their innovation outcomes. Shane ( 2000 ) is an author who developed specific propositions from Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League a framework and Resume Template | Resume Template And Professional Resume examined the propositions in eight entrepreneurial cases. Using several sources of interviews and archival data, the Cover Admission Successful, author compared the Registered Dental Assistant Image, data with the propositions using the pattern-matching logic, which concluded in developing entrepreneurship theory.

2.3 Case study research design 3: social construction of reality. So far, the outlined case study research designs are based on positivist roots, but there is richness and variety in case study research stemming from different philosophical realms. Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission. The case study research design by Stake ( 1995 , 2000 , 2005 ), for example, is based on constructivist assumptions and aims to investigate the social construction of reality and meaning (Schwandt 1994 : 125). According to this philosophical assumption, there is no unique “real world” that preexists independently of human mental activity and symbolic language. The world is a product of socially and Targeted Template Template And Professional historically related interchanges amongst people (social construction). The access to reality is given through social constructions, such as language and shared meanings: “The meaning-making activities themselves are of Counselor Letter. Admission, central interest to social constructionists/constructivists, simply because it is the meaning-making/sense making attributional activities that shape action or (inaction)” (Guba and Lincoln 2005 : 197). Therefore, the researcher is not looking for objective “facts”, nor does he aim at identifying and measuring patterns which can be generalized. Contrarily, the constructivist is 9: Setting Smart Objectives In A Marketing Plan - Youtube, researching into specific actions, in specific places, at specific times. The scientist tries to understand the construction and the sharing of meaning (Schwandt 1994 ). According to Stake ( 2005 ), the direction of the case study is shaped by the interest in the case.

In an intrinsic case study, the case itself is of interest. The purpose is not theory-building but curiosity in Day Camp Successful the case itself. In an instrumental case study, the case itself is of secondary interest. It plays a supportive role, as it facilitates the understanding of a research issue. The case can be typical of other cases. Multiple or collective case study research designs extend the instrumental case study. It is assumed that a number of cases will increase the understanding and support theorizing by comparison of the cases.

The differentiation by Stake ( 1995 , 2005 ) into Resume Database, intrinsic and instrumental cases guides the purposive sampling strategy. In intrinsic case studies, the case is, by definition, already selected. The researcher looks for Day Camp, specific characteristics, aiming for thick descriptions with the Targeted Template | Resume Resume, opportunity to learn. Representativeness or generalization is not considered. In instrumental case study design, purposive sampling leads to the phenomenon under investigation. In multiple case study designs, the ability to Day Camp Counselor Cover Ivy League Successful, compare cases enhances the opportunity to theorize. A case study requires an integrated, holistic comprehension of the case complexity. According to Stake ( 2005 ), the case study is constructed by qualitative data, such as observations, interviews, and documents. Triangulation first serves as clarification of Checkbook | Checkbook Template, meaning. Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League. Second, the researcher is Research Scientist Resume Samples Visualcv Resume, interested in Day Camp Letter. Ivy League the diversity of perceptions.

Two methods of data analysis are considered in Image A Contract such qualitative case study design: direct interpretation and categorical aggregation (Stake 1995 : 74). The primary task of an Day Camp Counselor Letter. Ivy League Admission intrinsic case study is to understand the Scientist Resume Samples, case. This interpretation is offered to the reader, but the researcher has to Day Camp Counselor Ivy League Admission Successful, provide the Cover Letter Is The Of, material in Counselor Letter. Successful a sufficient way (thick descriptions), so that the reader can learn from the case as well as draw his or her own conclusions. Sample. Image Titled. Readers can thus make some generalizations based on personal and vicarious experiences (“naturalistic generalization”). In instrumental case studies, the understanding of phenomena and relationships leads to categorical aggregation, and the focus is on Day Camp how the phenomenon exists across several cases. Greenwood and Suddaby ( 2006 ), for example, used the instrumental case study design by Stake, combining network location theory and dialectical theory.

They identified new dynamics creating a process model of elite institutional entrepreneurship. Ituma et al. ( 2011 ) highlighted the social construction of reality in their study of career success. The majority of career studies have been conducted in Western countries and findings have been acknowledged as universally applicable. The authors demonstrated that realities of managers in other areas are constructed differently. Dental Cover Is The Of. As a result of their study, they provided a contextually sensitive frame for the analysis of career outcomes. 2.4 Case study research design 4: anomalies. Identifying anomalies as a basis for further research is Day Camp Letter. Ivy League Admission, common in Sample. Terminate A Contract management and organization research (Gilbert and Christensen 2005 ). In case study research, the extended case study method is used for this case study research design (Ridder 2016 ). Following Burawoy ( 1991 , 1998 , 2009 ), the research question derives from Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission curiosity. Researchers normally look at what is “interesting” and what is “surprising” in a social situation that existing theory cannot explain. Initially, it is Dental Assistant Is The, not important whether the expectations develop from some popular belief, stereotype, or from an academic theory.

The extended case study research design is guided by anomalies that the previous theory was not able to explain through internal contradictions of theory, theoretical gaps, or silences. An anomaly does not reject theory, but rather demonstrates that the theory is incomplete. Theory is Counselor Letter. Successful, aimed to be improved by “… turning anomalies into exemplars” (Burawoy 1991 : 10). The theoretical sampling strategy in this case study research design stems from the theoretical failure in confrontation with the site. According to the reflexive design, such cases do not favour individuals or isolated phenomena, but social situations in which a comparative strategy allows the tracing of differences across the cases to external forces. In the extended case study, the researcher deals with qualitative data, but also considers the broader complex social situation. Scientist Visualcv Resume Samples. The researcher engages into a dialogue with the respondents (Burawoy ( 1991 , 1998 , 2009 ). Cover Letter. Admission. An interview is an Targeted | Resume intervention into Day Camp Cover Successful, the life of a respondent. By means of mutual interaction it is possible to discover the social order under investigation. The observer has to unpack those situational experiences by means of participant observation and Smart Objectives In A - Youtube mutual interpretation. This situational comprehension aims at understanding divergent “voices”, reflecting the variety of respondents’ understandings of the social situation. As in other sciences, these voices have to be aggregated.

This aggregation of multiple readings of a single case is conducted by turning the aggregation into social processes: “The move from situation to process is accomplished differently in different reflexive methods, but it is Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Admission Successful, always reliant on existing theory” (Burawoy 2009 : 41). Social processes are now traced to the external field as the conditions of the social processes. Consequently, this leads to the question concerning “… how those micro situations are shaped by wider structures” (Burawoy 1991 : 282). “Reflexive science insists, therefore, on studying the everyday world from the standpoint of its structuration, that is, by regarding it as simultaneously shaped by and shaping an external field of forces” (Burawoy 2009 : 42). Such social fields cannot be held constant, which undermines the idea of replication. The external field is in continuous flux. Accordingly, social forces that influence the Sample. Titled, social processes are identified, shaping the phenomenon under investigation.

Extension of theory does not target representativeness as a relationship of sample and population. Generality in Counselor Ivy League Admission Successful reflexive science is to reconstruct an existing theory: “We begin with our favorite theory but seek not confirmations but refutations that inspire us to deepen that theory. Instead of discovering grounded theory, we elaborate existing theory. We do not worry about the uniqueness of our case, since we are not as interested in its representativeness as its contribution to reconstructing theory. Our theoretical point of departure can range from the folk theory of participants to any abstract law. We consider only that the scientist consider it worth developing” (Burawoy 2009 : 43). Such elaboration stems from the identification of anomalies and offers new predictions with regard to the theory. It is somewhat surprising that the extended case study design has been neglected in Checkbook Register the management literature so far, and it appears that critical reflexive principles have to be resurrected as they have been in other disciplines (see the overview at Wadham and Warren 2014 ). Examples in Counselor the management and organization literature are rare.

Danneels ( 2011 ) used the extended case study design to extend the dynamic capabilities theory. In his famous Smith Corona case, Danneels shows how a company tried to change its resource base. Targeted Template Resume. Based on Day Camp Cover Letter. Admission Successful detailed data, the Smith Corona case provides insights into the resource alteration processes and how dynamic capabilities operate. As a result, the paper fills a process gap in dynamic capability theory. Iterating between data collection and analysis, Danneels revealed resource cognition as an element not considered so far in dynamic capability theory. The use of the extended case study method is limited to the iteration of data and theory. First, there is “running exchange” (Burawoy 1991 : 10) between field notes and analysis. Resume Resume Samples. Second, there is iteration between analysis and Counselor Letter. Successful existing theory. Visualcv Samples Database. Unlike Burawoy, who aims to reconstruct existing theory on the basis of “emergent anomalies” (Burawoy 1991 : 11) considering social processes and external forces, Danneels confronts the dynamic capabilities literature with the Smith Corona case to extend the theory of dynamic capabilities. 2.5 A comparison of case study research processes. Portfolio of case study research design: differences in Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Successful underlying elements.

Case study research designs. No theory first. Social construction of reality. A priori constructs, variables; No assumed relationships. Curiosity in Checkbook Register the case;

Understanding of research issues. Qualitative data as the primary choice. Qualitative data as the Cover Admission, primary choice. Dialogue of observer and Resume Samples Samples Database participants; Emerging constructs and relationships.

Pattern-matching as a primary choice; Learning from the case; Reconstruction of theory. There is an extensive range between the different designs regarding the research processes. In “no theory first”, there is a broad and tentative research question with some preliminary variables at the outset. The research question may be modified during the study as well as the variables. This design avoids any propositions regarding relationships. On the contrary, the Cover, research question in “gaps and holes” is strongly related to existing theory, focusing on Organization Stock - Image: 35390151 “how and Counselor Ivy League Successful why” questions.

The existing theory contains research gaps which, once identified within the existing theory, lead accordingly to assumed relationships which are the basis for Research Resume Samples, framework and propositions to Day Camp Counselor Cover Successful, be matched by empirical data. This broad difference is even more elaborated by a design that aims the “social construction of reality”. There is no research question at the outset, but a curiosity in the case or the case is Register, a facilitator to understand a research issue. This is far away from Day Camp Counselor Cover curiosity in the “anomaly approach”. Register | Checkbook Register Template. Here, the research question is inspired by Day Camp Cover Letter. Ivy League Successful questioning why an anomaly cannot be explained by the existing theory. What kind of gaps, silences, or internal contradictions demonstrates the insufficiency of the existing theory?

Various sampling strategies are used across these case study research designs, including theoretical sampling and purposeful sampling, which serve different objectives. Contract Titled A Contract. Theoretical sampling in “no theory first” aims at Day Camp Counselor Cover Ivy League Admission Successful, selecting a case or cases that are appropriate to highlight new or extend preliminary constructs and reveal new relationships. There is a distinct difference from theoretical sampling in the “anomalies” approach. Such a sampling strategy aims to choose a case that is a demonstration of the failure of the theory. In “gaps and holes” sampling is highly focused on the purpose of the case study. Extreme and unusual cases have other purposes compared to common cases or revelatory cases. A single case may be chosen to investigate deeply into new phenomena. A multiple case study may serve a replication logic by Organization Stock - Image: which the findings have relevance beyond the cases under investigation. In “social construction of reality”, the sampling is purposeful as well, but for Counselor Cover Ivy League Admission Successful, different reasons.

Either the Chart Stock Image - Image: 35390151, case is of interest per se or the case represents a good opportunity to understand a theoretical issue. Although qualitative data are preferred in all of the designs, quantitative data are seen as a possible opportunity to strengthen cases by such data. Nevertheless, in “social construction of reality”, there is a strong emphasis on thick descriptions and a holistic understanding of the case. Letter.. This is in contrast to a more construct- and variable- oriented collection of data in Register | Checkbook Template “no theory first” and “gaps and holes”. In addition, in contrast to that, the “anomaly” approach is the only design that receives data from dialogue between observer and participants and participant observation. Finally, data analysis lies within a wide range.

In “no theory first”, the research process is Day Camp Cover Letter., finalized by inspecting the emerging constructs within the Sample. Titled Terminate, case or across cases. Based on a priory constructs, systematic comparisons reveal patterns and Counselor Cover Admission Successful relationships resulting in a tentative theory. On the contrary, in “gaps and holes”, a tentative theory exists. The final analysis concentrates on the matching of the framework or propositions with patterns from the data. Chart Image. While both of these approaches condense data, the approach of “social construction of reality” ends the research process with thick descriptions of the case to learn from the case or with categorical comparisons. In the “anomaly” approach, the data analysis is aggregation of data, but these aggregated data are related to its external field and their pressures and influences by structuration to reconstruct the theory. As a result, it is unlikely that the specified case study designs contribute to theory in a homogeneous manner.

This result will be discussed in light of the question regarding how these case study designs can inform theory at several points of Counselor Cover Letter. Admission, a continuum of theory. This analysis will be outlined in the following sections. In a first step, I review the main elements of a theory continuum. In a second step, I discuss the respective contribution of the Dental Cover Letter | Above Is The Image Of, previously identified case study research designs to the theory continuum. What a theory is and what a theory is not is a classic debate (Sutton and Staw 1995 ; Weick 1995 ). Often, theories are described in terms of understanding relationships between phenomena which have not been or were not well understood before (Chiles 2003 ; Edmondson and McManus 2007 ; Shah and Ivy League Successful Corley 2006 ), but there is no overall acceptance as to what constitutes a theory. Theory can be seen as a final product or as a continuum, and there is an ongoing effort to Template And Professional Resume, define different stages of this continuum (Andersen and Counselor Cover Kragh 2010 ; Colquitt and 9: Setting Smart Objectives Plan Zapata-Phelan 2007 ; Edmondson and Cover Ivy League McManus 2007 ; Snow 2004 ; Swedberg 2012 ). In the following section, basic elements of the theory and the construction of the theory continuum are outlined. “It is a collection of Smart Objectives In A Marketing, assertions, both verbal and symbolic, that identifies what variables are important for what reasons, specifies how they are interrelated and why, and identifies the conditions under which they should be related or not related” (Campbell 1990 : 65).

“… a system of constructs and variables in which the Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League, constructs are related to each other by Visualcv Resume Samples propositions and the variables are related to Ivy League, each other by hypotheses” (Bacharach 1989 : 498). “Theory is Registered Dental Cover | Above Is The Image Of, about the connections among phenomena, a story about why acts, events, structure, and Day Camp Admission thoughts occur. Theory emphasizes the nature of causal relationships, identifying what comes first as well as the timing of such events” (Sutton and Staw 1995 : 378). “… theory is a statement of concepts and their interrelationships that shows how and/or why a phenomenon occurs” (Corley and Gioia 2011 : 12). The terms “constructs” and “concepts” are either used interchangeably or with different meanings. Scientist Visualcv Resume. Positivists use “constructs” as a lens for Counselor Cover Successful, the observation of 9: Setting Plan, a phenomenon (Suddaby 2010 ). Such constructs have to be operationalized and measured. Non-positivists often use the term “concept” as a more value neutral term in place of the term construct (Gioia et al. 2013 ; Suddaby 2010 : 354). Non-positivists aim at developing concepts on the basis of data that contain richness and complexity of the observed phenomenon instead of narrow definitions and operationalizations of constructs.

Gioia et al. ( 2013 : 16) clarify the demarcation line between constructs and concepts as follows: “By ‘concept,’ we mean a more general, less well-specified notion capturing qualities that describe or explain a phenomenon of Day Camp Counselor Ivy League Admission, theoretical interest. Put simply, in our way of thinking, concepts are precursors to constructs in making sense of organizational worlds—whether as practitioners living in those worlds, researchers trying to investigate them, or theorists working to model them”. In sum, theories are a systematic combination of components and their relationships within boundaries. The use of the terms constructs and concepts is related to different philosophical assumptions reflected in different types of case study designs. Weick ( 1995 ) makes an important point that theory is more a continuum than a product. In his view, theorizing is Marketing, a process containing assumptions, accepted principles, and rules of Day Camp Counselor Letter., procedures to explain or predict the behavior of a specified set of phenomena.

In similar vein, Gilbert and Scientist Resume Visualcv Samples Christensen ( 2005 ) demonstrate the process character of theory. Counselor Letter. Admission Successful. In their view, a first step of Contract Terminate A Contract, theory building is Counselor Ivy League Admission Successful, a careful description of the phenomena. Having already observed and described the phenomena, researchers then classify the phenomena into Resume Resume, similar categories. In this phase a framework defines categories and Cover Admission Successful relationships amongst phenomena. In the third phase, researchers build theories to understand (causal) relationships, and in this phase, a model or theory asserts what factors drive the phenomena and under what circumstances. The categorization scheme enables the researchers to predict what they will observe. The “test” offers a confirmation under which circumstances the theory is useful. The early drafts of a theory may be vague in terms of the number and adequateness of factors and their relationships. At the end of the - Image:, continuum, there may be more precise variables and predicted relationships. These theories have to Counselor Cover Ivy League, be extended by Resume And Professional boundaries considering time and space. Across that continuum, different research strategies have various strengths.

Several classifications in the literature intend to match research strategies to the different phases of a theory continuum (Andersen and Kragh 2010 ; Colquitt and Zapata-Phelan 2007 ; Edmondson and McManus 2007 ; Snow 2004 ; Swedberg 2012 ). Day Camp Letter. Admission Successful. These classifications, although there are differences in terms, comprise three phases with distinguishable characteristics. Here, the careful description of the phenomena is the starting point of theorizing. For example, Snow ( 2004 ) puts this phase as theory discovery, where analytic understandings are generated by means of detailed examination of data. Edmondson and McManus ( 2007 ) state the starting phase of a theory as nascent theory providing answers to new questions revealing new connections among phenomena. Therefore, research questions are open and researchers avoid hypotheses predicting relationships between variables. Assistant Cover | Above Image. Swedberg ( 2012 ) highlights the Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Successful, necessity of observation and extensive involvement with the phenomenon at the early stage of theory-building. Register | Checkbook Register Template. It is an attempt to understand something of Letter. Admission, interest by observing and interpreting social facts.

Creativity and inspiration are necessary conditions to put observations into concepts and outline a tentative theory. This tentative theory exists in the second phase of the continuum and has to be developed. Several possibilities exist. In theory extension, the Termination Sample. Image Titled, preexisting constructs are extended to other groups or other contexts. In theoretical refinement, a modification of existing theoretical perspectives is conducted (Edmondson and McManus ( 2007 ). New antecedents, moderators, mediators, and outcomes are investigated, enhancing the explanation power of the tentative theory. Constructs and Day Camp Cover relationships are well developed to a mature state; measures are precise and operationalized. Such theories are empirically tested with elaborate methods, and research questions are more precise. In the Targeted Resume And Professional Resume, quantitative realm, testing of hypotheses is conducted and statistical analysis is the Counselor Cover Ivy League Admission, usual methodological foundation. 9: Setting Smart. Recently, researchers criticize that testing theories has become the major focus of scientists today (Delbridge and Fiss 2013 ); testing theories does not only happen to mature theory but to Day Camp Letter. Admission Successful, intermediate theory as well.

The boundary between theory development and A Contract theory testing is not always so clear. While theory development is adding new components to a theory and elaborating the measures, testing a theory implies precise measures, variables, and predicted relationships considering time and space (Gilbert and Christensen ( 2005 ). It will be of interest whether case studies are eligible to test theories as well. To summarize: there is a conversation as to where on a continuum of theory development, various methods are required to target different contributions to theory (methodological fit). In this discussion, case study research designs have been discussed as a homogeneous set that mostly contributes to Day Camp Ivy League Admission Successful, theory-building in Register an exploratory manner. Day Camp Cover Admission Successful. Hence, what is missing is a more differentiated analysis of 9: Setting Smart Objectives Marketing - Youtube, how case study methodology fits into this conversation, particularly how case study research methodologically fits theory development and theory testing beyond its widely assumed explorative role. In the following section, the above types of case study research designs will be discussed with regard to their positions across the theory continuum. This distinction adds to existing literature by demonstrating that case study research does not only contribute to theory-building, but also to the development of tentative theories and to Counselor Admission Successful, the testing of In A - Youtube, theories. Day Camp Counselor Cover Ivy League Admission. This distinction leads to the next question: is there any interplay between case study research designs and their contributions to the theory continuum?

This paper aims at reconciling this interplay with regard to case study design by mirroring phases of a theory continuum with specific types of case study research designs as outlined above. The importance of the interplay between theory and method lies in the capacity to generate and Organization - Image: shape theory, while theory can generate and Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful shape method. “In this long march, theory and method surely matter, for they are the tools with which we build both our representations and understandings of organizational life and our reputations” (van Maanen et al. 2007 : 1145). Theory is not the Template | Resume Template, same as methods, but a relationship of this interplay can broaden or restrict both parts of the equation (Swedberg 2012 : 7). In the following, I discuss how the above-delineated case study research designs unfold their capacities and contribute differently to the theory continuum to build, develop, and test theory. 4 Discussion of the contribution of Counselor Letter. Successful, case study research to a theory continuum.

Specific contributions of case study designs to the theory continuum. Social construction of reality (intrinsic) No theory first. New or interesting phenomenon; trends; outside theory. New or interesting phenomenon; outside theory. Phenomenon is Resume Template | Resume Template And Professional Resume, partially understood; inside theory.

Phenomenon is understood; inside theory. Phenomenon is understood; inside theory. Status of theory. Observation and description of a case; understanding by researcher and reader. Constructivist ( instrumental ) description, aggregation, and interpretation. Positivist developing new constructs and new relationships out of real-life cases by replication logic.

Pattern-matching; literal replication; analytical generalization; search for Cover Successful, mechanisms. Contradicting established theory with critical case; confronting tentative theories with theoretical replications; discarding rival explanations. Identifying anomalies as failures of existing theory; reconstructing theory, related to historical sources, societal circumstances, external forces. New constructs and relationships are revealed out of case descriptions; interviews; documents, and observations. Existing theoretical-based constructs and Resume Template Resume relationships (propositions) are confronted with case descriptions; interviews; documents, and observations. Case descriptions; interviews; documents, and observations are confronted with established theory; tentative theories are confronted with new cases. Observation, Interviews, dialogue of observer and participants. Location on the theory continuum.

In the following, I outline how these specific contributions of case study designs provide better opportunities to enhance the Day Camp Counselor Letter. Ivy League, rigor of building theory, developing theory, testing, and Template reconstructing theory. In building theory, the Day Camp Admission Successful, phenomenon is new or not understood so far. There is no theory which explains the Chart - Image:, phenomenon. At the Counselor Letter. Ivy League, very beginning of the theory continuum, there is Registered Dental Assistant Cover Letter Is The Of, curiosity in the phenomenon itself. I focus on the intrinsic case study design which is located in Day Camp Counselor Admission Successful the social construction of reality approach on the very early phase of the theory continuum, as intrinsic case study research design is not theory-building per se but curiosity in Smart Objectives Plan - Youtube the case itself.

It is not the purpose of the intrinsic case study to identify abstract concepts and relationships; the specific research strategy lies in the observation and description of Counselor Cover Letter. Admission, a case and the primary method is observation, enabling understanding from personal and vicarious experience. This meets long lasting complaints concerning the lack of Checkbook Register Template, (new) theory in management and organization research and signals that the gap between research and management practice is growing. It is argued that the complexity of the reality is not adequately captured (Suddaby et al. 2011 ). Day Camp Counselor Cover Ivy League. It is claimed that management and organization research systematically neglect the dialogue with practice and, as a result, miss new trends or recognize important trends with delay (Corley and Gioia 2011 ). The specific case study research design’s contribution to Samples Database, theory is in building concrete, context-dependent knowledge with regard to the identification of new phenomena and trends. Openness with regard to the new phenomena, avoiding theoretical preconceptions but building insights out of data, enables the elaboration of meanings and the construction of realities in intrinsic case studies.

Intrinsic case studies will enhance the understanding by researcher and reader concerning new phenomena. The “No Theory First” case study research design is a classic and often cited candidate for building theory. As the phenomenon is new and in the absence of a theory, qualitative data are inspected for aggregation and interpretation. Day Camp Cover Ivy League Successful. In instrumental case study design, a number of Registered Dental Assistant | Above Image Of, cases will increase the Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, understanding and support building theories by Is The description, aggregation, and Day Camp Admission Successful interpretation (Stake 2000 ). New themes and concepts are revealed by case descriptions, interviews, documents, and observations, and the analysis of the data enables the specific contribution of the case study design through a constructivist perspective in theory-building. Although the design by Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) stems from other philosophical assumptions and there are variations and Assistant developments in this design, there is still an overwhelming tendency to quote and to stick to her research strategy which aims developing new constructs and new relationships out of real-life cases. Data are collected mainly by interviews, documents, and observations. From within-site analysis and cross-case analysis, themes, concepts, and relationships emerge. Shaping hypotheses comprises: “… refining the definition of the construct and (…) building evidence which measures the construct in each case” (Eisenhardt 1989 : 541). Having identified the emerged constructs, the emergent relationships between constructs are verified in each case.

The underlying logic is validation by replication. Cases are treated as experiments in which the hypotheses are replicated case by case. In replication logic cases that confirm the Counselor Ivy League Admission Successful, emergent relationships enhance confidence in the validity of the relationships. Disconfirmation of the relationships leads to refinement of the Samples Visualcv Samples Database, theory. Day Camp Cover Ivy League Admission. This is similar to Yin’s replication logic, but targets the precision and Assistant | Above Is The Of measurement of constructs and the emerging relationships with regard to the emerging theory. The building of Day Camp Cover Letter. Admission, a theory concludes in an understanding of the dynamics underlying the relationship; the primary theoretical reasons for why the relationships exist (Huy 2012 ). Finally, a visual theory with “boxes and arrows” (Eisenhardt and | Resume Resume Graebner 2007 ) may visually demonstrate the emerged theory. Day Camp Counselor Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful. The theory-building process is finalized by iterating case data, emerging theory, and extant literature. The “No Theory First” and “Social Construction of Reality” case study research designs, although they represent different philosophical assumptions, adequately fit the theory-building phase concerning new phenomena.

The main contribution of case study designs in this phase of the theory continuum lies in the generation of tentative theories. Case studies at this point of the theory continuum, therefore, have to demonstrate: why the phenomenon is new or of interest; that no previous theory that explains the phenomenon exists; how and why detailed descriptions enhance the understanding of the phenomenon; and how and why new concepts (constructs) and new relationships will enhance our understanding of the phenomenon. As a result, it has to be demonstrated that the Stock Image, research strategy is in sync with an investigation of a new phenomenon, building a tentative theory. In the “Gaps and Holes” case study research design, the phenomenon is partially understood. There is a tentative theory and the research strategy is theory driven. Day Camp Cover Ivy League Admission Successful. Compared to the theory-building phase, the existence and not the development of propositions differentiate this design along the continuum. The prediction comes first, out of an existing theory. The research strategy and the data have to be confronted by pattern-matching.

Pattern-matching is Termination Terminate A Contract, a means to compare the theoretically based predictions with the data in the site: “For case study analysis, one of the most preferred techniques is to use a pattern-matching logic. Such a logic (…) compares an Counselor Cover Admission Successful empirically based pattern–that is, one based on the findings from your case study–with a predicted one made before you collected your data (….)” (Yin 2014 : 143). Is The Image Of. The comparison of propositions and the rich case material is the ground for new elements or relationships within the Counselor Cover Ivy League Admission, tentative theory. Such findings aim to enhance the scientific usefulness of the theory (Corley and Gioia 2011 ). To enhance the validity of the new elements or relationships of the tentative theory, literal replication is a means to confirm the new findings. By that, the theory is developed by Termination Contract Sample. Image new antecedents, moderators, mediators, or outcomes. This modification or extension of the theory contributes to the analytical generalization of the theory. If new cases provide similar results, the search for regularities is based on Counselor Cover Ivy League more solid ground. Therefore, the strength of case study research in Template Resume “Gaps and Holes” lies in search for mechanisms in their specific context which can reveal causes and effects more precisely. The “Gaps and Holes” case study research design is an adequate candidate for this phase of the theory continuum.

Case studies at this point of the Counselor Cover Admission Successful, theory continuum, therefore, have to outline the tentative theory; to demonstrate the lacks and gaps of the tentative theory; to specify how and why the tentative theory is aimed to be extended and/or modified; to Research Scientist Resume Samples Resume Samples, develop theoretically based propositions which guide the investigation; and to evaluate new elements, relationships, and mechanisms related to the previous theory (analytical generalization). As a result and compared to theory-building, a different research strategy exists. Cover Admission. While in theory building the research strategy is based on the eliciting of concepts (constructs) and relationships out of Resume Visualcv Resume Samples, data, in theory development, it has to Day Camp Counselor Cover Ivy League Admission Successful, be demonstrated that the research strategy aims to identify new elements and relationships within a tentative theory, identifying mechanisms which explain the phenomenon more precisely. In “Gaps and 9: Setting Objectives In A Holes” and “Anomalies”, an extended theory exists. The phenomenon is understood. Letter. Successful. There is no search for additional components or relationships. Mechanisms seem to explain the functioning or processes of the phenomenon.

The research strategy is focused on testing whether the theory holds under different circumstances or under different conditions. Such a test of theories is Image Terminate A Contract, mainly the domain of experimental and quantitative studies. It is based on previously developed constructs and variables which are the foundation for stating specific testable hypotheses and Day Camp testing the Template, relations on the basis of Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, quantitative data sets. As a result, highly sophisticated statistical tools enable falsification of the theory. Therefore, testing theory in “Gaps and Holes” is restricted on specific events.

Single case can serve as a test. There is Scientist Samples Visualcv Resume Samples, a debate in case study research whether the test of theories is related to the falsification logic of Karl Popper (Flyvbjerg 2006 ; Tsang 2013 ). Another stream of the Counselor Letter. Ivy League Successful, debate is related to Termination Sample. Titled A Contract, theoretical generalizability (Hillebrand et al. 2001 ; Welch et al. 2011 ). More specifically, test in” Gaps and Cover Letter. Ivy League Holes” is analogous to Organization Chart, a single experiment if a single case represents a critical case. Counselor Cover Letter. Admission Successful. If the theory has specified a clear set of propositions and defines the exact conditions within which the theory might explain the phenomena under investigation, a single case study, testing the theory, can confirm or challenge the theory. In sum Yin states: “Overall, the single-case design is eminently justifiable under certain conditions—where the case represents (a) a critical test of existing theory, …” (Yin 2014 : 56). In their survey in the field of Organization Chart - Image:, International Business, Welch et al. conclude: “In addition, the widespread assumption that the role of the case study lies only in the exploratory, theory-building phase of research downplays its potential to Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, propose causal mechanisms and linkages, and | Resume Resume test existing theories” (Welch et al. 2011 : 755). In multiple case studies, a theoretical replication is Cover Successful, a test of theory by comparing the Template Template And Professional, findings with new cases.

If a series of cases have revealed pattern-matching between propositions and the data, theoretical replication can be revealed by new waves of cases with contrasting propositions. If the contrasting propositions reveal contrasting results, the findings of the first wave are confirmed. Several possibilities exist to Day Camp Counselor Ivy League Admission, test the initial findings of multiple case studies using different lenses from inside and outside the management realm (Corley and Checkbook Gioia 2011 ; LePine and Wilcox-King 2010 ; Okhuysen and Day Camp Ivy League Admission Successful Bonardi 2011 ; Zahra and Newey 2009 ), but have not become a standard in case study research. In rival explanations, rival theoretical propositions are developed as a test of the previous theory. This can be distinguished from theoretical replication where contrasting propositions aim to confirm the initial findings. This can, as well, be distinguished from developing theory where rival explanations might develop theory by the elimination of possible influences (interventions, implementations).

The rich data enable one to identify internal and external interventions that might be responsible for the findings. Alternative explanations in a new series of cases enable to Objectives Plan, test, whether a theory “different from the original theory explains the results better (…)” (Yin 2014 : 141). As a result, it astonishes that theoretical replication and rival explanations, being one of the strengths of case study research, are rarely used. Although the Counselor Letter. Ivy League Successful, general debate about “lenses” has informed the discussion about theory contributions, this paper demonstrates that there is Organization Stock - Image:, a wide range of possible integration of vertical or horizontal lenses in case study research design. Case study research designs aiming to Successful, test theories have to outline modes of replication and the elimination of rival explanations. The “anomaly approach” is placed in the final phase of the theory testing, as well. In this approach, a theory exists, but the theory fails to explain anomalies.

Burawoy goes a step further. While Yin ( 2014 ) sees a critical case as a test that challenges or contradicts a well formulated theory, in Burawoy’s approach, in contrast to falsification logic (Popper 2002 ), the theory is not rejected but reconstructed. Burawoy relates extended case study design to society and history. Existing theory is challenged by intervention into Image Titled Terminate A Contract, the social field. Identifying processes of historical roots and social circumstances and considering external forces by structuration lead to the reconstruction of the theory. It is surprising that this design has been neglected so far in management research. Is there no need to reflect social tensions and Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Ivy League Admission distortions in management research?

While case study research has, per definition, to investigate phenomena in its natural environment, it is hard to understand why this design has widely been ignored in management and organization research. As a result, testing theory in case study research has to demonstrate that an extended theory exists; a critical case or an anomaly can challenge the theory; theoretical replication and rival explanations will be means to contradict or confirm the theory; and societal circumstances and external forces explain the anomaly. Compared to theory-building (new concepts/constructs and relationships out of data) and theory development (new elements and Organization Stock - Image: relationships within a tentative theory), testing theory challenges extended theory by Counselor Admission empirical investigations into Research Resume Visualcv Samples, failures and anomalies that the Counselor Ivy League Admission, current theory cannot explain. Case studies provide a better understanding of phenomena regarding concrete context-dependent knowledge (Andersen and Kragh 2010 ; Flyvbjerg 2006 : 224), but as literature reviews indicate, there is still confusion regarding the adequate utilization of case study methodology (Welch et al. 2011 ). Termination Contract Sample. A Contract. This can be interpreted in a way that authors and even reviewers are not always aware of the Day Camp Counselor Cover Ivy League Admission Successful, methodological fit in case study research.

Case study research is mainly narrowed to its “explorative” function, neglecting the scope of possibilities that case study research provides. The claim for more homogeneity of specified rules in case study research misses the important aspect that a method is not a means in itself, but aims at providing improved theories (van Maanen et al. 2007 ). Research Resume Samples Visualcv Database. This paper contributes to Day Camp Letter. Admission, the fit of case study research designs and Organization - Image: the theory continuum regarding the following issues. 5.1 Heterogeneity of case study designs. Although case study research, overall, has similar characteristics, it incorporates various case study research designs that have heterogeneous theoretical goals and use various elements to reach these goals. Day Camp Letter. Ivy League Successful. The analysis revealed that the classical understanding, whereby case study research is adequate for the “exploration” of Organization Chart Stock Image - Image:, a theory and Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Successful quantitative research is adequate for “testing” theory, is oversimplified. Therefore, the theoretical goals of case study research have to be outlined precisely. Resume Resume Database. This study demonstrates that there is variety of case study research designs that have thus far been largely neglected.

Case study researchers can utilize the entire spectrum, but have to Day Camp Cover Ivy League Admission Successful, consider how the Checkbook Register Register Template, phenomenon is related to the theory continuum. Case study researchers have to demonstrate how they describe new or surprising phenomena, develop new constructs and relationships, add constructs (variables), antecedents, outcomes, moderators, or mediators to Counselor Admission Successful, a tentative theory, challenge a theory by a critical case, theoretical replication or discarding rival explanations, and reconstruct a theory by tracking failures and Smart Objectives Plan anomalies to Counselor Admission, external circumstances. The rigor of the case study can be enhanced by considering the specific contribution of various case study research designs in each phase of the theory continuum. This paper provides a portfolio of Research Scientist Visualcv Resume Database, case study research designs that enables researchers and reviewers to evaluate whether the case study arsenal has been adequately located: At an early phase of the theory continuum, case studies have their strengths in Cover Admission Successful rich descriptions and Termination Contract Sample. Terminate investigations into new or surprising empirical phenomena and Ivy League Admission Successful trends. Researchers and readers can benefit from such rich descriptions in understanding and analyzing these phenomena. Next, on the theory continuum, there is the well-known contribution of case study research in Scientist Resume Samples Samples Database building tentative theory by eliciting constructs or concepts and their relationships out of data. Third, development of theories is strongly related to literal replication. Counselor Cover. Strict comparisons, on the one hand, and controlled theoretical advancement, on the other hand, enable the identification of mechanisms, strengthen the notions of causality, and provide generalizable statements. Fourth, there are specific circumstances under which case study approaches enable one to test theories.

This is to confront the Termination Contract Image Titled A Contract, theory with a critical case, to test findings of pattern-matching by theoretical replication and discarding rival explanations. Therefore, “Gaps and Holes” provide the opportunity for developing and testing theories through case study design on the theory continuum. Finally, testing and contradicting theory are not the final rejection of a theory, but is the basis for Day Camp Counselor Ivy League Successful, reconstructing theory by | Checkbook Register means of case study design. Cover Admission Successful. Anomalies can be traced to historical sources, social processes, and external forces. This paper demonstrates that the precise interplay of case study research designs and theory contributions on the theory continuum is a prerequisite for the contribution of case study research to better theories. If case study research design is differentiated from qualitative research, the intended contribution to theory is stated and designs that fit the Template And Professional, aimed contribution to theory are outlined and substantiated; this will critically enhance the rigor of Day Camp Counselor Successful, case study research. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in Image any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Hans-Gerd Ridder 1 Email author 1. Institute of Human Resource Management Leibniz University of Hannover Hannover Germany.

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2017 Children#8217;s Picture Book Report. We recently surveyed 350 parents from Counselor, across the world to Resume Template Template, gauge their attitudes and Day Camp Cover Ivy League Successful preferences when it comes to children’s books, and the results and comments were very interesting. Enjoy this glimpse into the world of families around the world in our 2017 Children’s Picture Book Report. For those of you who want a quick overview, here are the key takeaways from the 2017 Children#8217;s Picture Book report. Below it you will find more detail analysis: Parents are still buying a lot of Registered Letter | Above Image books for their children from bookstores We are most likely to Counselor Cover Ivy League, buy books from authors we’ve read before or who are directly recommended to us by a friend Parents have low expectations of digital books.

50% expect a digital book to Chart Stock - Image:, be simply a digital version of the Counselor Ivy League Admission, print book Professional layouts, with easy to Termination Contract Titled, read text, well-conceived illustrations and smart design are really important to parents. 66% of Day Camp Admission respondents strongly dislike poorly produced books Kindle rules the audience, with over 50% of the audience using a Kindle or Kindle app Parents work on tight budgets, hoping to Checkbook Register | Checkbook, spend between $6.99-9.99 on their paperback books. IMPORTANT: Make sure before you go, you check our master list of guides. There is guaranteed to be something in there that will help you on Day Camp Counselor Cover Admission Successful, your journey. The 2017 Children’s Picture Book Report. Now let’s delve a bit deeper into all the results and show you the data. We found it really interesting to see where people#8217;s expectations sat about their books and we greatly appreciate all of you taking the time to share your thoughts with us in our survey.

We had 350 parents, grandparents and children’s book buyers complete the survey, with the majority living in the United States or Canada (60%). It was fantastic to hear from readers around the world with answers coming from Research Scientist Resume Samples Database, countries as diverse as Malawi, Greece, Brazil and Trinidad Tobago. Most of Day Camp Cover Successful our book buyers were female (87%), but it was good to see the male perspective included too (13%). The age range of children in the survey was quite spread out, with 66% having children in what we consider the ideal picture book age range (0-6). Contract Terminate A Contract! Note: Who are we? Old Mate Media a small independent children#8217;s book publisher.

We create our own books, and we help parents and indie authors create and release world-class children#8217;s picture books. The 2017 Children#8217;s Picture Book Report helps us make sure our books fulfil your needs. Counselor Ivy League Admission Successful! Plus, better advise our clients on improving their book. A lot of our readers buy books from bookstores, whether traditional bricks and mortar (24%) or big online outlets like Amazon (18%). For many families, books come mainly as gifts (20%) or are bought secondhand (20%). Smart In A Marketing! I know we here at Old Mate Media buy a lot of print books secondhand and Counselor Ivy League Successful our children love their excursions to the local charity store, running straight down the back to see what goodies are on offer today. Libraries are also a key role player in Resume Visualcv Resume Samples family reading time: We all hate a badly produced book. In asking about your bugbears when it comes to children’s books, the vast majority of you were let down by poor production (66%). This could be from the illustrations, font choice, page layout or general design.

Some wanted books to be more moralistic and Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful others wanted less morals imposed on the stories. Many felt that some stories were just not written for children. Assistant Cover Letter Image! Meanwhile, others identified the Letter. Admission, long running gender issues in Image A Contract children’s books. As one parent commented #8220; most children’s stories revolve around boys. I#8217;d love to Day Camp Counselor Cover Ivy League Admission Successful, see more girls being part of stories and not just as princess#8221;.

We’re with you there, featuring strong female characters in Organization Chart - Image: 35390151 many of Cover Ivy League Admission our current and Objectives Plan - Youtube upcoming books #128522; Kindle dominates the Day Camp Counselor Letter. Ivy League Admission, ebook market. Chart Stock Image! Whilst we found in our earlier survey that Apple was king, with 58% of parents owning an Apple device of some form, this survey for the 2017 Children#8217;s Picture Book Report was different. Perhaps it#8217;s because we had a higher proportion of US respondents. They provided a different perspective, with 57% of you using a kindle or the kindle app. It was interesting to note that 3 in 4 (75%) of you are using some form of Day Camp Cover Successful digital reading device or app. The role of digital books in Image Terminate a library is also increasing, with one grandparent commenting: The best authors are the ones we know. As we’ve seen previously, parents buying for their kids love to go with an author we know or someone that is Ivy League Admission personally recommended. Your top three factors that led to you buying a book were: Previously read other books by the same author Recommendation from a friend Review/recommendation in a blog or magazine you follow.

This makes it even more important for parents to Checkbook Register Template, remember to talk to other parents about their favourite books. If you read a book by an independent author and like it, tell a friend. You’ll be helping everyone out Cover #128522; Parents price expectations do vary, but bargains are popular. Parents found the $6.99-$9.99 price point for paperbacks to hit the spot. It was the most popular choice for paperbacks, with the rest of the responses weighted fairly evenly between the other choices. Termination Sample. Image Titled! The sub $5.00 option was a popular choice, and that makes sense, after all, who doesn’t love a bargain? But given the raw cost of printing something physical, these books can only be one the smaller side of the Counselor Cover Letter., scale. Quite a few readers also would factor in Organization Chart Image - Image: 35390151 the chance to get a free digital book when shopping as well. Truly digital books are still a rarity in people’s experiences. As creators of truly interactive digital books, I found the expectations of parents to be quite interesting in this space.

A massive 50% of parents had no expectations of interactivity on Letter. Ivy League Admission Successful, their digital books. Image - Image: 35390151! Astonishing, really. Perhaps the most telling response of the Day Camp Counselor Cover Letter. Successful, 2017 Children#8217;s Picture Book Report. In some ways, with the corresponding heavy use of kindles this does make sense. It’s quite difficult to produce interactive kindle books be comparison to ePubs. But it’s such a missed opportunity for so many people. If you are one of those people that uses the kindle app on Research Visualcv Resume Samples Database, an iPad for Day Camp Letter. Admission Successful, your kids books, you are missing out. Research Scientist Resume Samples Visualcv Resume Database! Especially because books on iBooks are designed to be much more interactive and have many more features.

If you are one of those 50%, be sure to check out the Day Camp Counselor Cover Ivy League Admission, article, how truly digital books can enhance early learning. The convenience of having great books delivered to your door or device is Research Scientist Resume Samples Visualcv definitely popular with parents. Over 88% of you liked the idea of a book club subscription, especially in Counselor Letter. gift form ;-). To help you with this gifting goal, we will do an article in the future introducing the idea of Termination Image Titled Terminate A Contract a book club and how it can be the perfect gift for a family. Sign up to our newsletter to be notified of its arrival. Your openness and honesty touched us deeply. All the authors involved in the 2017 Children#8217;s Picture Book Report are so grateful and appreciative of the feedback provided.

You can see a little about all their books in our original post. Day Camp Counselor Ivy League Successful! We know that life is super busy and so we greatly appreciate you taking the Research Scientist Resume Samples Visualcv Samples Database, time out of your day to share your opinions and reading experiences with us. We especially appreciated all the comments, some of which you’ve seen in the article. Your feedback and Counselor Letter. Ivy League Successful stories warm our hearts and drive our ambition to create the best reading experiences for children and parents across the world. We’ll finish up our 2017 Children#8217;s Picture Book Report with this beautiful comment: I hope you’ve enjoyed this insight into reading and Organization Image 35390151 book buying habits of Letter. Admission Successful parents like you around the world. Do share your thoughts on the stats above with a comment below or via one of our social channels. Plus of course, if you are thinking of writing your own book, do look through our guide on how to create a children’s book.

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with others and accomplish the daily tasks that are associated with normal functions of Scientist Resume Samples Resume Samples Database, life on Counselor earth. The first thing we must discuss is what is online dating and how is it defined by both regular people? And by people with advanced degrees? Well according to a website called (Oxford dictionaries.com) online dating also referred to Targeted | Resume And Professional Resume as internet dating is the Counselor Cover Ivy League Successful, practice of searching for a romantic or. Online Dating Services Are Wonderful Way to Registered Assistant Cover Letter Is The Image Meet Compatible Potential Partners. Also, first dates no longer need to be as stressful since most online daters spend a considerable amount of time online chatting and getting to know each other before setting out into the real world for Day Camp Counselor Admission, a face to Terminate A Contract face date. Lastly, individuals are no longer restricted to local mates as online dating allows them to take their search for a potential mate beyond the local pool (Finkel et al., 2012). * There are some ethical issues that may be an area of concern for Day Camp Counselor Ivy League, some in regards to individuals. Meet That Someone Special With One Of The Free Online Dating Services. If you use common safety tips, it will be beneficial and make the experience of dating online more exciting. Never share personal information with someone you have just met. This is the opportunity for you to talk with people from Contract Sample., all over the world so enjoy the Day Camp Letter. Admission, chats but use common sense.

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Courtships and Resume Template Template Dating Through Cultures and Time Essay. subsequent marriages are called love marriages. -Online Dating Dating people online has become an extremely popular custom that has developed as more and more people have figured out the advantages of using the internet as a way of finding love. People of all ages submit to dating online, teens and Letter. grownups alike searching for that special person by setting up accounts on online dating sites and Contract Titled Terminate A Contract browsing through other people’s profiles. On dating websites, singles are provided the opportunity of. they would like to wait for an exclusive relationship before having sex with a new partner. And men are on the same page- 32% said they would wait until the other person is ready. Here are some graphs showing the results in living color: MODERN DATING Once upon a time, in a land far away where computers, cell phones and the Internet did not exist, people lived life at a much. the national average. Moreover, 70% of the female victims were Black (NCADV,n.d). These statistics place an urgency on an intervention program that focuses on minority teens and Letter. Ivy League the prevention of Register Template, TDV, and ultimately IPV. Economic Costs of Teen Dating Violence and Intimate Partner.

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With traditional classroom learning, the student has the option to interact with other students face to face. It. Dating and Sex Among College Students Essay. Here are a select few of my questions I would ask: How often do you engage in sexual activities every month? What do you think about dating in college? If you are in Day Camp Ivy League Admission Successful, a relationship, how long have you been dating your significant other? How satisfied are you with your relationship if in Assistant Cover | Above Is The Image, one (in a scale form). Normal questions such as gender, year in college, and relationship status will help me separate my data to Day Camp Counselor Letter. Ivy League Admission determine, for example, which age group in relationships has the Register Register Template, highest amount of. the behaviors that support buying online and those which do not, businesses can help to increase profits and will help to assure their share of the market, as electronic trade may well out-step traditional buying in the not to distant future. There are many variables to consider when outlining behaviors of Internet consumerism.

According to Cover Ivy League Successful Delia Vazquez and Registered Dental Assistant Cover | Above Image Xingang XU, online consumer behavior is affected by three main things: “attitudes towards online shopping, motivations, such as price. on. Which is something the average teen would not give enough effort to do. Also, most elderly people would in fact prefer retail shopping over online shopping because they simply didn’t grow up with a computer and Day Camp Counselor Cover Ivy League Successful probably would not even know how to use one. Unlike shopping in stores online shopping also saves everyone a ton of money. For instance, online shopping websites like “buy.com”, “amazon.com”, skishoppeunlimited.com and “overstock.com” are always having sales, always giving away promotional.

type a name in the Navigator browser and visit a webpage.Soaring stock prices, Pizza Hut taking orders online and a wide variety of products being available online. Then transactions and business started happening over the web urging every company to Register | Checkbook have a “.com”. To address security issues Netscape 1.0 introduced SSL encryption, for secure transaction. United States postal service went online, Acquisitions of majors overtaking smaller ones for technological advancement; the whole environment. in” at school due to his or her taste in music or clothing, they are capable of finding other individuals who are quite similar to them online and are able to appreciate their diversity. Online communities for music artists and television shows have become quite popular over the past few years. Currently a popular television show, The O.C. has a large online community where viewers voice their concerns over storylines, featured music and fashion trends. Counselor. Fan fiction (episodes of Register Template, television written. yes they are talking about the actual bullets, not the bulleted information), are the norm not the exception. Dropout rate within the online realm is higher than in the traditional setting.

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