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Bibliography management with bibtex. L a T e X supports bibliographies out of the Sample Real Offer Free, box, either embedding the references in Letter Letter, your document or storing them in an external file. This article explains how to manage bibliography with the thebibliography environment and the BibTeX system. Note: If you are starting from scratch it's recommended to Sample Offer Form Free Documents use biblatex since that package provides localization in Vintage And Flyer Design Template With, several languages, it's actively developed and makes bibliography management easier and more flexible. Standard bibliography commands in L a T e X have a similar syntax to that of Sample Real Estate Free Documents, lists and items. Grand Invitation. The environment thebibliography produces a list of references; such list will be titled References in a article document class, and Bibliography in book and report document classes. A parameter inside braces, 9 in the example, indicates the number of Sample Estate Offer Form - 7+ Free Documents, entries to be added; this parameter can not be greater than 99. To create a bibliography entry the command bibitem is used.

A parameter inside braces is set to label this entry and can later be used as identifier for this reference. After the 6+ Thank | Dupont, closing brace the text with the name of the author, the book title, publisher and so on Sample Real Offer Form - 7+ In Pdf, is entered. Ncr - Assessment Meeting – On-Track. Share L a T e X provides several templates with pre-defined styles to manage bibliography. See this link. The example presented in the introduction only contains list of Sample Real Estate Documents In Pdf, references, the next example shows how to cite the entries of - Best Examples, that list within the Estate Free Documents, document. File:bill Graduation Concert.jpg. The command cite insert the Real Estate Offer Form - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, number corresponding to the bibliography entry whose label is passed inside braces. For example, the output of cite is [2]. The information printed by the command cite depends on the bibliography style used.

See Bibtex bibliography styles. [edit] Bibliography management with Bibtex. Poster Template Poster - Poster. BibTeX is a widely used bibliography management tool in L a T e X , with BibTeX the Real Form - 7+, bibliography entries are kept in a separate file and - Best, then imported into the main document. Once the Sample Estate - 7+ Documents, external bibliography file is Daily Format Sample Calendar, imported, the Form Documents, command cite is used just as in Daily Work Format Calendar | April Calendar, the introductory example. Below, a description of the commands: bibliography Imports the BibTeX file sample.bib to display the bibliography. To import several .bib files just write them comma-separated inside the Estate Offer Form Documents In Pdf, braces, the file extension is not necessary. File:bill Evans Graduation - Wikimedia Commons. bibliographystyle Sets the bibliography style to be used in this document. The information displayed depends on Real Documents, the bibliography style used, even if the Template Template,, entry contains information about the Sample Real Offer Free Documents In Pdf, date, author, title, publisher and abstract, the style used might only Vintage Islamic Style Brochure And Flyer With print the Form In Pdf, title and 6+ Thank | Dupont Schedule, the author.

See Bibtex bibliography styles which contains examples of the default bibliography styles in L a T e X . Sample Form Free Documents In Pdf. cite This will print a number of text, depending on the bibliography style, to reference the bibliography entry whose label is passed to the command. In this case, the Letter, label einstein produces [2]. Note: Unicode characters are not supported on BibTeX. Sample Real Documents. Also, if there are too many bibliography entries (+100) it may not work properly. See the File:bill, further reading section for links to other bibliography management tools . Bibliographic references are usually kept in Sample Real Estate Free In Pdf, a bibliography file whose extension is | April Calendar | April, .bib, this file consists of Real Free Documents In Pdf, a list of records and fields . Each bibliography record holds relevant information for a single entry. This file contains records in a special format, for Education Powerpoint instance, the first bibliographic reference is Real Estate Form In Pdf, defined by: @article This is the Delightful Grand Invitation Flyer - Templates, first line of Sample Estate Form - 7+ Free In Pdf, a record entry, @article denotes the 6+ Thank You Notes For Employees Schedule, entry type and Sample Estate Form Free, tells BibTeX that the information stored here is about an article. Besides the entry types shown in the example ( article , book and Delightful Opening Flyer - Templates, misc ) there are a lot more, see the reference guide. Sample Real - 7+ Free Documents. einstein The label einstein is assigned to Template Template, this entry, is an Sample Real Offer Form In Pdf identifier that can be used to refer this article within the Resignation Letter, document. author = Albert Einstein, This is the first field in the bibliography entry, indicates that the Form Free Documents, author of this article is Albert Einstein. Grand - Templates. Several comma-separated fields can be added using the Offer Free In Pdf, same syntax key = value , for Commons instance: title, pages, year, URL, etc. Sample Estate Free Documents In Pdf. See the Ncr - Safety, reference guide for a list of Real Estate Form In Pdf, possible fields. Delightful Grand Flyer By Canva. The information in Sample Estate Free Documents In Pdf, this file can later be used within a L a T e X document to Education include these references, as shown in the next subsection. [edit] Adding the Real Estate - 7+ Documents, bibliography in the table of | Dupont, contents.

There are two ways of including the Sample - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, bibliography in the table of contents, either manually adding it or using the Poster Template » Goal Poster - Poster, package tocbibind (recommended). To add it manually just insert the next line right before the Real Documents, command begin or bibliography. for books and reports or. for articles. Concert.jpg. If you prefer to use tocbibind see the Estate Offer Form Documents In Pdf, next example. Adding the line. to the preamble will print the Resignation Letter, References or Bibliography in the table of contents, depending on Real Offer Free, the document type. Be careful, it will also add other elements like the Index, Glossary and list of Letter Examples, Listings to Real Free Documents In Pdf the table of contents. Islamic Brochure Template. For more information see [the tocbibind package documentation].

Standard entry types. Estate Form - 7+ In Pdf. article Article from a magazine or journal book A published book booklet A work that is printed but have no publisher or sponsoring institution conference An article in a conference proceedings inbook A part of Concert.jpg - Wikimedia, a book (section, chapter and Estate Offer - 7+ Free, so on) incollection A part of a book having its own title inproceedings An article in Ncr - Hazard Safety, a conference proceedings manual Technical documentation masterthesis A Master's thesis misc Something that doesn't fit in Sample Real Offer Form - 7+ Documents, any other type phdthesis A PhD thesis proceedings The same as conference techreport Report published by an institution unpublished Document not formally published, with author and title.

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office romance essay Joan Klingel Ray. Joan Klingel Ray (email: is Professor of English and President’s Teaching Scholar at the University of Colorado, Colorado Springs and Real Form, President of the North American Friends of Chawton House Library. She served as President of JASNA from 2000 to 2006. E agerness to inject passionate romance into Jane Austen’s life—whether with the young Irishman Tom Lefroy or someone else—is nothing new. Speaking in Vintage Islamic Brochure And Flyer Design Template Logo, 1925 to the Royal Society of Literature of the U. K. about the “gap” in Austen’s literary productivity between 1797 ( First Impressions ) and Sample Estate Form - 7+ Free Documents, the “flood” of novels after 1811, H. W. Garrod sensibly cautioned:

Miss Austen’s biographers have sought the explanation of the mystery in a love affair. But perhaps a simpler explanation [is] . . . that, though she had written her first three novels by the end of 1798, she had not found a publisher for any of them until 1811. Education Powerpoint Templates? A genius, the most philo-progenitive, necessarily feels its ardours a good deal damped by the misfortune of three stillborn children. (27-28) 1. With Miramax’s 2007 release of Becoming Jane , “philo-progenitive” speculation will spread from the Sample Offer Free Documents In Pdf world of Austenites to the movie-going public. Many film-goers will believe not only that Lefroy was Austen’s romantic muse but also that she retained a passionate place in Resignation Letter - Best Letter Examples, his heart. At the film’s end, an Sample Free Documents In Pdf older, greyer Tom Lefroy reunites with Jane Austen, who looks shockingly like George Eliot, and tells the novelist that his teenage daughter who accompanies him is named “Jane,” leading Lefroy and Austen to Resignation Letter Examples look meaningfully into each other’s eyes—notwithstanding that Jane Lefroy’s grandmother was Mrs.

Jane Paul ( Memoir 15, 16, 18). 2. Miramax’s film was inspired by Jon Spence’s Becoming Jane Austen (2003), which also influenced Linda Robinson Walker’s 2006 “Jane Austen and Tom Lefroy: Stories.” Walker also seconds the idea that Austen was thinking of Sample Estate Offer Form - 7+ Free In Pdf, Lefroy with romantic melancholy as late as 1805—an idea, as Walker acknowledges (para. 25), that Nadia Nahmias-Radovici offered in 1995 in A Youthful Love: Jane Austen and Letter Letter, Tom Lefroy (8-10). 3. In researching the Sample Real Estate Offer Form - 7+ Free In Pdf character of Tom Lefroy, nephew of Madam Lefroy, Austen’s beloved mentor and friend, for a 2006 essay in Notes and Queries , I began to question the extent of the Austen/Lefroy relationship and to perceive him as a young man of unquestionable probity and strong professional ambition whose heart actually belonged to another at the time he met Austen. 4 This essay develops ideas first presented there, as well as offering some things new.

Its dual guiding premises are that Lefroy was both too principled and too involved with a young Irishwoman, the Hazard Assessment Form – On-Track sister of his close college friend, to Sample - 7+ Documents trifle with or pursue Austen, and that young Jane Austen, (with apologies to my fellow-Janeites) an overly-exuberant young lady, misread Lefroy’s intentions. Tom Lefroy is thereby exculpated from the charge leveled by his aunt, Madam Lefroy, of “behav[ing] so ill to Jane Austen” (Anna Austen Lefroy, qtd. in Le Faye, “Tom Lefroy” 337). Assessing the Delightful Invitation - Templates By Canva connection between Austen and Lefroy must begin with what Austen actually says about the contact they had. Her letter of 9-10 January 1796 speaks teasingly to her sister, Cassandra, about how she and her “Irish friend” were “profligate and Real Offer, shocking in the way of Education Templates, dancing and sitting down together” at three holiday balls. She also admits: “But as to our having ever met, except at the last three balls, I cannot say much,” emphasizing their limited contact.

Noting that Tom “ran away when we [i.e., likely Austen and her mother] called on Mrs Lefroy a few days ago,” she assumes he is “ashamed of coming to Steventon.” A few days after the Sample Real Offer - 7+ Free running incident, Tom appears at Steventon, accompanied by - Best Letter, his teenage cousin, George Lefroy. In Austen’s letter of 14-15 January 1796, she writes to her sister, “I rather expect to receive an offer from my friend in the course of the evening [i.e., of the fourth ball at Estate In Pdf Ashe, the Lefroy home]. Resignation Letter - Best Letter Examples? I shall refuse him, however, unless he promises to give away his white Coat,” referring to Tom’s sartorial choice that reflects the eponymous Tom Jones’s wearing a white coat; in the earlier letter, she had observed that Tom is a “very great admirer” of Tom Jones. (While Lefroy may have admired the imprudent hero of Fielding’s novel, this essay will show that Lefroy, himself, was a most prudent young man.) What could she mean by an “offer”? As her first letter revealed, the Sample Real Form In Pdf two had little if any contact besides at Vintage Brochure Design Template With the balls. With Tom’s fleeing Ashe when the Austens arrive and then visiting Steventon with George a few days later, an Sample Real Estate Offer Documents “offer” to dance sounds far more likely than an offer of romance. If Austen is not being facetious in this letter, she is unfortunately expecting more from Tom Lefroy than he has even hinted at offering her, based on her own words about their contact. Then we have the brief—and for some, tantalizing—letter of 23 August 1796 to her sister, written from Cork Street, London, where Austen and her brothers Frank and Edward spent time en route from Steventon to Edward’s Godmersham estate. Grand Opening Flyer? Although Austen does not mention Lefroy here, Spence shows that Tom’s great-uncle, Benjamin Langlois, lived in a house on Cork Street (98-99).

Tom lived with him while he was pursuing his legal studies. Spence reasonably assumes that the Sample Estate - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf three Austen siblings stayed at Langlois’s home because there were no hotels on the street then. But Austen’s writing, “I begin already to find my Morals corrupted” in her brief letter need not relate to her being in Tom’s London home, redolent of his manly presence. First, it is unlikely that Tom was even there in August because Lincoln’s Inn was not in session: Trinity term ended on June 15 th and the next term, Michaelmas, would not start until November 6 th (Warr). Irish students normally returned home to Ireland during the long break (Hutchings, 11 April 2006).

Secondly, Austen’s saying in the note that she is now in London, a “Scene of Dissipation vice,” would be in vogue with the 6+ Thank You Notes | Dupont Work popular literary convention that the city (London) is a den of Sample Estate, iniquity, while the country is a place of | Dupont Work, innocence. Real Estate Form In Pdf? 5 That London was seriously viewed as morally seductive is clear from a letter written by Education Powerpoint, Tom Lefroy’s Trinity College tutor, the Rev. Dr. Burrowes (later Dean of Cork), dated April 21, 1795: “Of his [Tom’s] conduct in London, however seducing its idleness and Estate Offer Form, its evils , you need not have the slightest doubt” ( Memoir 14, my italics). 6. Austen’s final epistolary reference to Tom occurs in her letter of 17-18 November 1798. The letter indicates that Madam Lefroy knew that her Irish nephew was not romantically pursuing Jane Austen. Ncr - Assessment Meeting Form Safety? Austen writes that “of her nephew [Madam Lefroy] said nothing at all,” and touchingly that she herself “was too proud to make any enquiries,” showing that Austen had far more interest in Lefroy than he had in her. When the Rev. Mr. Austen asks about Tom, they learn from Madam Lefroy that “he was gone back to Sample Real Offer Form - 7+ London in Vintage Style Brochure Design Template With Logo, his way to Ireland, where he is called to the Bar and means to practise.” Madam Lefroy then shows Austen a letter from the Rev.

Samuel Blackall, a twenty-seven-year-old Cantabrigian, in Real Offer Documents, which he mentions the Austens—in something of For Employees Work, a Collinsesque way!—suggesting that Madam Lefroy was hoping to connect Austen and Blackall. Madam Lefroy had invited Blackall to Ashe for the Christmas holidays of 1797/98 and Real Form - 7+ Free Documents, introduced him to her dear Steventon neighbor (Le Faye, Chronology 204). Powerpoint? But in this same letter, Austen herself recognizes their mutual indifference. 7 The point is that Madam Lefroy initiated the Offer - 7+ Free Documents Blackall-Austen acquaintance in December 1797, just a year after she hosted Tom at Ashe. Does it not sound as if Madam Lefroy, herself, wanted to run out of Steventon rather than raise Tom Lefroy’s name? (Allow me to tip-toe out on a limb : there may be something of Education Powerpoint Templates, Madam Lefroy in Emma Woodhouse, matchmaker manqu .)

Some of those eager to get Austen and Lefroy together also turn to a passage in Austen’s letter to Cassandra of 8-11 April 1805, written in Bath, to suggest that “Jane and Tom may have met again in Sample Estate Offer Documents, Bath” (Nahmias-Radovici 8-10; Walker, para. 25-26): Richard Chamberlayne a young Ripley from M r Morgan’s school, were there; our visit did very well.—This morning we have been to see Miss Chamberlayne look hot on horseback.—Seven years four months ago we went to the same Ridinghouse to Education see Miss Lefroy’s performance!—What a different set are we now moving in! But seven years I suppose are enough to change every pore of Sample - 7+ Free, one’s skin, and every feeling of one’s mind. Far less titillating than suspecting that Lefroy had been in Bath with Austen “seven years and four months ago” is conjecturing that during that same period, Austen and Delightful - Templates By Canva, her family saw Lucy Lefroy riding in Bath in the company of Lucy’s mother, Madam Lefroy. On Jane Austen’s birthday in Real Offer Form In Pdf, 1804 (with Lucy now married to Henry Rice and a mother, another big change since Lucy was riding in Bath), Madam Lefroy died in a horseback riding accident. Austen would show how deeply this event affected her by writing an affectionate poem, “To the 6+ Thank For Employees | Dupont Schedule Memory of Mrs. Offer - 7+ Documents In Pdf? Lefroy,” in Template Template Template, Frame, 1808—four years after Madam Lefroy’s death ( MW 440-42). Clearly, Austen had deeply retentive feelings for another Lefroy besides Thomas. As I have observed, some persons mine Austen’s epistolary comments to dig up a passionate, extended romance between Austen and Sample Real Estate - 7+ Free, Lefroy—one that influenced her writing. 6+ Thank You Notes | Dupont Work? But Austen’s letters really do not tell us much about Tom Lefroy—other than that he ran away from the Austen ladies and that she thinks he is “ashamed” to visit her—in terms of his real character.

To understand the events of Free Documents, Tom’s life and his actual nature, we must turn to the 1871 Memoir of Chief Justice Lefroy . While the author’s being Thomas Lefroy, son of the Tom Lefroy in Austen’s letters, might lead one to think that this biography is Hazard Assessment Meeting Form – On-Track written with the “family prejudice” that Mr. Gardiner suspects when he hears Mrs. Real Estate Offer? Reynolds praise Darcy ( PP 249), the Memoir includes letters about Tom’s character and career plans written by Tom’s Trinity tutor, the Islamic Brochure Design Template Logo Rev. Dr. Burrowes, who has earlier been introduced, as well as by Tom’s great-uncle Benjamin Langlois and by others who knew and witnessed Tom’s behavior during his late teens and early to Sample Form Free In Pdf mid-twenties. 8 The letters give us an objective picture of a pious, principled, responsible, and ambitious young man, who would not have “led-on” a young woman—thus corroborating the praise that Thomas Lefroy extends to his father. For example, Langlois praises “Thomas,” as he liked to Letter - Best Examples call him, in a letter to his nephew, Tom’s father. Writing on 22 November 1790, “[i]mmediately after [Tom’s] entering Trinity,” Langlois stresses that even at Thomas’s young age (not quite fifteen), 9 he was “so advanced for his years” that he was sure to succeed ( Memoir 6). Subsequent letters from Langlois printed in the Memoir follow Thomas’s academic career and legal ambitions.

Writing again to Tom’s father on 20 November 1791, Langlois speaks of Thomas’s being an “assiduous” student with “talents and disposition” that augur “success” (7). In another Langlois letter to the same (10 December 1792), he praises Thomas for “keep[ing] the Sample Estate Offer - 7+ Free Documents lead in so distinguished a class” at College and having “everything in his temper and character that can conciliate affection. Islamic Style And Flyer Design? A good heart, a good mind, good sense, and as little to Sample Offer In Pdf correct in him as ever I saw in one of Education Templates, his age” (8). Sample Estate Offer - 7+ Free? In fact, Tom retained “the lead” in his “distinguished” cohort of students, earning the “gold medal of Resignation Letter, his class” ( Memoir 12). 10. And what of Tom’s personal life, beyond his academics? Based on Sample Real Estate Offer - 7+ the Memoir , it is likely that Tom had already met and seriously thought about the woman he would marry, Miss Mary Paul, while at Trinity and at least two years before he met Jane Austen. As I observe in the 2006 NQ essay, Tom developed “a warm friendship” with a fellow student, Mr. Ncr - Assessment Meeting? Thomas Paul, “during their College course” ( Memoir 14): between November 1790 and April 1795 (12). Sample Estate Offer Form? 11 The Memoir likewise states that “during their [the two Toms’] College course,” Lefroy visited the Paul family, who were still in Ireland then, “and, very soon, an attachment sprung up between him and Mr. and Mrs.

Paul’s only daughter [Mary],” to whom he became engaged in 1797 (14-15). Based on his character as presented in the Memoir , Tom does not sound like Edward Ferrars, foolishly entering a youthful engagement before having any career plans—just a year after leaving Mr. Pratt’s school ( SS 130). Unlike Edward, Tom efficiently pursued his professional ambitions before pursuing his marital plans. To practice at the Irish Bar, a prospective Irish lawyer was required keep terms at Poster Template Poster Template one of the Inns of Court in London (Hutchings, 23 June 2007). Thus, Tom signed the Sample Offer - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf registration book at Lincoln’s Inn 11 October 1793, well in advance of his physical attendance, which began in | Dupont Work Schedule, mid to late 1795 (H. Lefroy 11).

In 1794, while still a Trinity student, he also registered at King’s Inn, Dublin (Hogan). Then during Lincoln’s Inn’s Easter Term (April to June) 1797—just between fourteen and sixteen months subsequent to his meeting Austen—he returned to Ireland to register at the Irish Bar, thereby cementing the location of his career choice ( Memoir 20). During this visit, Tom became formally engaged to Real Estate Offer Form - 7+ Free In Pdf Mary Paul, thus cementing his personal choice. It is Template Poster Template, Frame reasonable to Sample Estate Offer - 7+ Free say, then, that he knew Mary Paul for at least two years—well in advance of his meeting Jane Austen—before they became engaged in spring 1797. Examples? 12 Being formally engaged, the Sample Form Free Documents couple “was allowed to carry on a correspondence” (Memoir 15). Tom’s 1797 engagement to By Canva Mary helps to explain his running away from Ashe when the Austen ladies called in Real - 7+ Documents In Pdf, January 1796.

Thinking of Mary Paul, whom he had met during his “college course” and with whom he “very soon” developed an “attachment,” the principled Tom did not wish to mislead Jane Austen, who, he could see, was interested in him. Tom could not help but know of this interest: Austen wrote in Letter Examples, her letter 9-10 January 1796 that the Sample Real Documents In Pdf Ashe Lefroys were laughing at Tom “about me.” 13 His calling at Vintage Islamic Template With Steventon in the company of his cousin George “a few days” after his running stunt implies to me that Madam Lefroy gave her nephew marching orders to pay a courtesy call on the Austens after his abrupt and impolite departure from her home when they called “a few days” earlier. So why not take George along as a buffer? Tom’s behavior towards Austen is Sample Real Estate Offer - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf not that of Poster Frame, a man in love with her. If Jane Austen was anything at all like Mary Russell Mitford’s mother remembered her—“the prettiest, silliest, most affected, husband-hunting butter-fly she ever remembers” (L’Estrange 1.305-06)—Tom must have been uncomfortable, seeing that his dancing and conversational courtesy had been misconstrued by Estate Documents, the flippant and flirty young lady in question, as well as by Invitation Flyer By Canva, the teasing Ashe Lefroys. 14 Lt. Col. J. A. P. Sample Real Estate Offer Free? Lefroy’s reaction to these events is Assessment & Tailgate Meeting – On-Track Safety similar to mine: “How serious was this? Unfortunately, we have only one side of the story—Jane’s. From the letters that remain it seems fairly clear that she made all the running” (152).

15 Consider, as well, that with Cassandra now engaged to Tom Fowle, her younger sister might have felt some pressure, even self-induced, to find a fianc of her own, leading her to behave around Tom Lefroy and write to her sister about him in an overly-exuberant way. Real Free In Pdf? No wonder Tom ran. Returning to her letter of Ncr - Hazard Assessment Meeting – On-Track, 17-18 November 1798, we recall that Austen only learned of Toms’s plan to practice at the Irish Bar during Mrs. Lefroy’s visit on Real Estate Free In Pdf Wednesday, November 14, 1798. Apparently, then, Tom did not think it necessary to tell Austen of his long-held ambition and activities toward fulfilling it while they were sitting down together and chatting at the four dances they attended between December 1795 and January 1796. And why should he? He was planning to Meeting Safety return to Ireland to propose to Mary.

Dancing together at four holidays balls did not mean a romantic interlude to Sample Real Free Documents In Pdf Tom Lefroy. Tom’s dual spring 1797 engagement and Irish Bar registration also affect our understanding of Austen’s reminiscence about “seven years and four months ago” (i.e., January 1798) in the April 1805 letter from Template » Goal Template, Frame Bath. The Memoir states that Mary preserved all of the letters she received from Tom, beginning with those written after their engagement in spring 1797 after he returned to London to continue his legal studies until 1799. The couple’s desire to correspond is Real Estate Form Documents In Pdf made even clearer when we learn that before practicing at the Irish Court in 1800, Tom continued to devote “himself . . . with perseverance to the study of law” at the Temple in London, still “resid[ing] with his grand uncle Mr. Langlois,” but now, as an engaged man, receiving letters from Mary (15, 20).

Consider that in a letter dated April 21, 1795 (just eight months before Lefroy met Austen at the first holiday ball and at Grand the time of his Trinity graduation), the Rev. Dr. Burrowes wrote of having “such intimate knowledge of [Tom’s] disposition and habits” that he can attest to the nineteen-year-old Lefroy’s “talents and judicious diligence,” “religious principles,” and Real Offer - 7+ Documents, “just ambition” to practice law in Ireland ( Memoir 13-14). Had Tom been romancing Jane Austen in Bath in Work Schedule, early 1798, while simultaneously writing to his fiance, he would have been cheating on both young women, behavior that contradicts the earnest, moral young man of the Memoir . Burrowes was in Sample Offer - 7+ Documents, an excellent position to evaluate Tom’s character. He was Tom’s tutor for Tom’s entire Trinity College experience (c. Hazard & Tailgate Safety? November 1790-April 1795), and Tom lived with Burrowes’s family during this period, leading Burrowes to say of Tom, “I feel for him as a son or a brother” (21 April 1795, 13-14). The facts of Tom’s Trinity years corroborate Burrowes’s glowing evaluation of his student and boarder at the time of his graduation. Tom was so active in Form In Pdf, the College Historical Society that he proactively led in December 1794 the “series of Resolutions” to found a new College Historical Society to replace the first one that was disbanded in 1790 because of debates that “breache[d] College discipline” ( Memoir 12). He must have been a persuasive orator and respected student when he addressed the Trinity administration on Resignation Letter Letter the Society’s behalf, for they acceded to his request. Real Offer - 7+ Free Documents? Going on to win four awards from this same College Historical Society (one for history and three for oratory in 1793, 1794, and 1795), Tom took all the College examinations, “taking the highest prize of each year” (12). Tom’s behavior during his Lincoln’s Inn period—specifically spanning the Austen years, as he physically arrived at the Inns of Court in mid to - Best Examples late 1795 to Sample Estate Offer Form Documents In Pdf begin “keeping terms”—was no different from Grand Opening Invitation what it had been at Trinity.

He habitually applied himself to his legal studies, which was greatly a matter of personal preference. Real Offer - 7+ Documents? That is, in those days “keeping terms” at the Inns of You Notes Work, Court was not equivalent to today’s law school with formal classes. Citing an Sample Estate Offer Form In Pdf e-mail from the Lincoln’s Inn Librarian, Helen Lefroy reports that. Irish students were required to keep eight terms commons. . . . “Keeping terms” was simply a matter of dining the right number of Education Templates, times during Hilary, Easter, Trinity and Michaelmas terms. Sample Real Estate Offer Free In Pdf? . 6+ Thank For Employees? . . The four Inns of Court provided no legal training whatsoever. Young aspiring barristers could attend the Sample Offer - 7+ courts, study available textbooks, read up cases in the chambers of a practicing barrister, or work in an attorney’s office. (H. Lefroy 13; similar to Hutchings, 11 April 2006) Preparing for the rigorous legal examinations that one needed to pass to Template » Goal Poster Template Template, Frame practice law was up to the individual. Of course, there were young men who, while dining the requisite number of times at the Inns of Court, never became lawyers. Sample Offer Form - 7+ Free? Austen even created one: George Wickham. Darcy’s letter to Elizabeth states that Wickham “‘had some intention . . . of studying the law . . . in town’” (i.e., in London at For Employees Work Schedule one of the Inns of Court), but “‘his studying the law was a mere pretence’” for “‘a life of idleness and dissipation’” ( PP 200-01).

Interestingly, Becoming Jane presents law-student Tom Lefroy in this very guise—fist-fighting in an alley, drinking and cavorting with whores, and scurrying late into Sample - 7+ Free court—at the Template » Goal Poster beginning of the film, which I mention in the QA in the Production Notes on Real Offer Form Free In Pdf the movie’s website. The real Tom, however, was “daily at Westminster Hall, where” he so assiduously observed “the Courts presided over by such men as Lord Eldon and Lord Kenyon” that “he . . Delightful Opening Invitation - Templates? . left a large collection of manuscript essays and readings on various heads of Common Law and Sample Offer Free, Equity, written while he was keeping his Law Terms at Lincoln’s Inn, that would rank high—even amongst the many valuable Digests now extant” ( Memoir 20). As a student he “laid in a store of knowledge with which few students ever commenced their professional career” (20). The sizable manuscript essay collection amassed from Lefroy’s Lincoln’s Inn-days verifies Lefroy Junior’s assessment of Letter - Best Examples, his father’s exceptionally diligent study habits. Tom’s unusual perseverance as a student of the law paid off. One of Tom’s friends, Charles D. Hoare, heard the twenty-five-year-old Tom, now practicing at the Irish Bar, argue in Form - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, the Dublin Court “a writ of Error before the Exchequer Chamber” in November 1801 ( Memoir 21). According to Hoare’s letter to Colonel Lefroy, Tom, after speaking for two hours (remember those Trinity Oratory medals!), apologized to Lord Clare for using so much of the Court’s time, only to Poster Poster Frame have Lord Clare respond, “Mr. Lefroy, you have no reason whatever to lament, for you have argued the case with most uncommon precision and Sample Estate Offer Form - 7+ Free Documents, much satisfaction to the Court” (my italics, showing that Tom stood out in Court just as he did at Trinity and Lincoln’s Inn).

Moreover, the Chief Baron of the Resignation - Best Letter Irish Bar commented that Lefroy’s presentation that day “was the ablest which has been made at the Irish Bar”—verifying the epistolary comment made by Burrowes six years earlier (April 1795), when he wrote that “no young man has left our College with a higher character” nor probably with as many medals ( Memoir 21-22, 13). Sample Form - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf? As Lefroy’s biographer-son modestly says of his uniquely brilliant and Education Powerpoint, legally-skilled father, “His habits of application while at the Temple [i.e., in London] appear to have borne early fruit” ( Memoir 21). With Tom fulfilling his ambition to practice law in Ireland, we turn back to those who believe that Austen’s being English was a “point in her favor” in terms of gaining approval from Langlois. Walker says that Langlois was “no friend to the Irish” and had “consistently tried to woo Tom to England” (para. Sample Estate Offer - 7+ In Pdf? 20, citing the For Employees Work Memoir 4). She also observes that in 1763, Langlois called the Irish “savages” in a letter to Real Estate Offer Free the Duke of Portland (para. 20). So why would Tom even go back to Langlois’s house to Education resume his legal preparations at Real Estate - 7+ Documents the Temple after spring 1797—after his registration at the Irish Bar and engagement to the now letter-writing, Irish Mary? The Memoir shows that Langlois’s desire for Style Brochure Design Template With Logo, Tom to be in England was a matter of fellowships, not fiances: [A]fter the idea of [Tom’s] being sent to an English University was abandoned, Mr. Langlois’ desire was that [Tom] should read for Sample Offer Form - 7+ Free, a fellowship in Vintage Islamic Style And Flyer Design Template With, the University of Dublin , and we might naturally suppose that the Real Form suggestion of so influential a relative, and one who took so deep an interest in You Notes For Employees | Dupont Schedule, his welfare, would have had great weight in such a matter yet nothing turned his [Tom’s] attention for a moment from the Irish Bar as the sphere of his future labours. (5, my italics)

If Langlois did not want Tom to be in Ireland in the mid to late 1790’s (thirty years after making his Irish “savages” remark), why would he urge Tom to secure a fellowship at the University of Dublin? 16. Langlois’s lengthy letter of November 3, 1793, written to Tom’s father, clarifies the intention behind his desire for Sample Real Form - 7+ Free In Pdf, Thomas’s securing a fellowship, whether at And Flyer an English or Irish university: having a fellowship meant having a classical academic education prior to pursuing professional studies. In this letter, Langlois states that securing a fellowship “was always my favourite object for Thomas.” But “whether he means to stand for a Fellowship or not,” Langlois elaborates, “let him by all means go on Estate Offer - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf with his academical studies. Hazard & Tailgate Form? Let him form his taste upon the great Greek and Roman models” ( Memoir 9).

Langlois continues, urging the Colonel to prevent Thomas’s. substituting another course, of making him either a lawyer, a statesman, or an orator, while at the University, he would lose all the advantages of a learned academical education. Sample Estate Offer Form - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf? . . . A University education gives strength and vigour to the mind. . . . Powerpoint? ( Memoir 11) Langlois’s point is even clearer when we realize that one did not need a University degree to register at the Inns of Court (Hutchings, 23 June 2007). Benjamin Langlois, however, desired Thomas to master the knowledge and skills of Real Offer Free, a classical University undergraduate education and complete his degree program—which Tom, indeed, did, earning his Trinity B.A. in 1795 (Hamilton)—before pursuing his professional legal studies in London. Tom’s character, which is presented in the Memoir , helps to explain Tom’s behavior during that winter holiday period of 1795/96, when he met and danced with Jane Austen, as well as when he ran away from Vintage Islamic Brochure And Flyer Design With Logo her and failed to tell her of his career plans.

Family gossip has been handed down regarding his behavior towards Austen, even as Austen’s statements in her letters attest to minimal contact between her and Sample Real Form Free Documents, Tom. Vintage Islamic Brochure And Flyer Design With? Yet desiring to create a passionate romance for Austen, mistress of love stories, proponents of an Austen-Lefroy “philo-progenitive” relationship have either failed to consult the Memoir or consulted it only selectively. Real Offer Documents In Pdf? Putting what Austen actually states in her letters together with what the Memoir reports of Tom’s character and activities suggests that their biggest topic of You Notes For Employees | Dupont Schedule, conversation was the Sample Estate Form - 7+ Free Documents color of his coat. Besides, if the Jane Austen-Tom Lefroy relationship had been a passionate romance, would the ever-vigilant Cassandra, keeper of thousands of her sister’s letters, allowed the Lefroy-letters to escape the flames in Ncr - Hazard Assessment Form – On-Track Safety, which she burned the epistles that she felt embarrassing or compromising to her beloved sister? Finally, as the research of Jocelyn Harris, in particular, has shown, while Austen’s life provided literary inspiration, so did her imagination and her reading. 1. While Garrod sees the “gap” in Austen’s literary productivity between the completion of Offer - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, “First Impressions” (1797) and the publication of Sense and Sensibility (1811), Spence, of course, sees Austen’s beginning “First Impressions” (1796) as the spark of creativity lighted by her relationship with Tom Lefroy. 2. The Memoir is Memoir of Chief Justice Lefroy by his son, Thomas Lefroy, hereafter cited as Memoir . Having studied the Memoir , I interpret the elderly Justice Lefroy’s recalling his “boy’s love” of Austen as another example of the kindness and Ncr - Assessment & Tailgate Form – On-Track, high principles for which he was distinguished in Estate Offer Free Documents In Pdf, his youth, as this essay will show.

See Helen Lefroy for the “boy’s love” remark (11). 3. Ncr - Assessment & Tailgate Safety? Spence argues that Lefroy’s and Austen’s reading of Tom Jones empowered her writing, and he attributes to Estate Offer Form - 7+ Free Documents Lefroy the “intense vitality and passion” of Powerpoint, Pride and Prejudice (102-03). Real Estate Form - 7+ Documents In Pdf? As for the “passion” of the novel, I remind readers that Darcy first loves Elizabeth for the “‘liveliness of [her] mind,’” while Elizabeth comes to Work love Darcy after she feels “gratitude and esteem” for Estate Free Documents, him ( PP 380, 279). Spence’s “Works Cited” list does not include the Memoir . Nahmias-Radovici suggests that Lefroy was Austen’s romantic muse for Northanger Abbey and Persuasion . Walker supports the ideas independently presented by Spence and Ncr - Meeting Form – On-Track, Nahmias-Radovici (whose work Spence also did not cite) that “the couple [Austen and Lefroy] had a longer relationship” and a more intense “bond” than hitherto believed (para. 1). 4. Sample Real Estate Offer Form Documents? Walker questions some statements in my essay, which she calls in her “Works Cited” list “The Real Tom Lefroy” (the title of Helen Lefroy’s essay in Poster » Goal Poster Template - Poster, The Jane Austen Society Report for 2003 ). Estate Offer Free In Pdf? For her querying my calling Mary Paul an “heiress,” see n. 7 of the NQ -essay, citing the DNB. Education? Mary Paul, however, was not an Form - 7+ Free heiress when she married Tom Lefroy—only after the death of her brother shortly after the marriage. Assessment Meeting Form Safety? For her querying my saying that Lefroy knew his future wife, Mary Paul “at least two years” before he met Austen, see this essay and n. 12, below. Sample Real Offer Form Free In Pdf? Having used Nahmias-Radovici’s book, Walker surprisingly did not question the same assertion made by & Tailgate Meeting Form, its author. 5. For example, in Tom Jones , Jones’s London experiences lead him to Sample Real Estate Offer Form - 7+ Documents In Pdf his worst moral fall: becoming the kept man of the older Lady Bellaston (Bk.

13). 6. While Walker thinks that the brevity of Austen’s Cork-Street letter is Poster » Goal Poster Template - Poster Frame based on her nervousness about being in the home (a “lion’s den” [para. 19]) of Langlois, from whom she desires the approval to Sample Real Offer In Pdf be Tom’s beloved, the letter’s shortness can easily be accounted for Islamic And Flyer Design, by Austen’s being tired from a long day’s travel but still feeling compelled to scribble off a hasty note on the day of arrival—much as we make a quick phone call today in similar circumstances. As for Estate - 7+ Free Documents, Walker’s querying the three Austens’ attending Astley’s Circus that evening: the famous equestrian circus was undoubtedly far more exciting than anything available in Steventon. For the “lion’s den,” see n. 16, below. 7. After repeating to Cassandra the You Notes For Employees | Dupont excerpt from Blackall’s letter where he mentions the Austen family, including his apology for Sample Form - 7+ Documents In Pdf, being unable to visit, Austen writes, “This is rational enough; there is less love and more sense in it than sometimes appeared before, and I am very well satisfied. It will all go on Education exceedingly well, and decline away in Real Estate Form - 7+, a very reasonable manner.” 8. Resignation Letter Examples? Langlois’s letters are replies to his nephew Colonel Lefroy (Tom’s father) and to the Rev.

Dr. Burrowes regarding Tom’s progress at Trinity College. 9. While Tom was a brilliant student, we should not consider him a prodigy for Sample Real Estate Form In Pdf, entering college at such a young age; many a fine student had mastered the required Greek and Latin to gain college admission between 14 and 16 years of age. Recall in Sense and Islamic And Flyer Design, Sensibility , Edward Ferrars’s telling Elinor, “‘I was not entered at Oxford till I was nineteen’” (362)—indicating that he enrolled at Sample Offer Form - 7+ Documents an unusually late age, though Lefroy’s having the linguistic knowledge to Templates enter Trinity before fifteen is Real Offer Form - 7+ In Pdf certainly a sign of Powerpoint, his unusual intelligence and Sample Form In Pdf, diligence. 10. 6+ Thank You Notes For Employees Work Schedule? Walker quotes some of these same phrases in Sample Real Estate Offer Form Documents, her essay but does not analyze or apply them to Tom’s behavior when he was at Template Poster Template, Frame Ashe and met Jane Austen. 11. Sample Real Form - 7+ Documents In Pdf? Had the two Toms met at the end of their college careers, Lefroy’s meticulous biographer/son would have said so. 12.

I am not alone in Ncr - & Tailgate Meeting Form – On-Track, reasoning that Tom Lefroy met Mary Paul years prior to his meeting Austen. Nahmias-Radovici’s conclusion is similar to mine, though we reached those conclusions independently: “Since [Mary Paul] was the sister of Real Estate Free In Pdf, [Tom Lefroy’s] College friend, Tom Paul, he must have known Mary for many years and Education Powerpoint, he must have been sure that she would have been an affectionate wife and mother” (56-57, my italics). Sample Estate Offer Form - 7+ Free Documents? However, I strongly disagree with her assumption that when Tom, as a husband and Delightful Opening Invitation Flyer - Templates, father, wrote letters to his wife and Form - 7+ Free In Pdf, children (reproduced later in the Memoir ) that expressed his religiosity, such expressions resulted from 6+ Thank For Employees | Dupont his feeling guilty about his youthful treatment of Sample Estate Free Documents In Pdf, Jane Austen and his trying “to avoid memories dear and painful, regrets and remorse to haunt his thoughts” (58). » Goal Poster Template Template,? Nahmias-Radovici’s book contains no citations from earlier sections of the Memoir , where Tom’s strong religious principles as a youth are mentioned. 13. Austen’s writing in this same letter that Tom “is so excessively laughed at about me at Ashe, that he is ashamed of coming to Steventon” reminds me of Mrs. Jennings’s teasing Elinor about names beginning with F ( SS 125). Imagine Tom’s being as irritated as Elinor is. Real Offer - 7+ Free Documents? While Walker claims that “Tom was . . . behaving like a man interested in a woman [i.e., Jane Austen]” (para.

12), I suggest that woman was Mary Paul. Likewise, Walker suggests that the Template Poster - Poster Frame Lefroys’ teasing Tom “must have annoyed him for its accuracy” (para. 11). If my argument is logical, then Tom was annoyed by the teasing’s inaccuracy because the Ashe Lefroys were unaware of his plans to Sample Estate Offer Free Documents practice law in Ireland and to Hazard Assessment Meeting Form – On-Track Safety propose to Mary. Walker also says that Tom’s “reputation for conviviality does not fit with this image of a teased, shy boy.” Yet his “reputation for conviviality”—assumedly inferred from Benjamin Langlois’s mentioning Tom’s “winning” character in a letter to Tom’s father written when Tom was at college and from Tom’s tutor’s letter to Tom’s father speaking of his “pleasure . . . in Sample Real Estate Offer Form - 7+ Documents In Pdf, Thomas’s society”—is based on Tom’s behavior at Poster Poster Frame Trinity, a bastion of male camaraderie ( Memoir 6, 13).

14. The comment is in Mary Mitford’s letter to Sir William Elford (3 April 1815). Mary Russell Mitford’s mother was Miss Mary Russell (1750-1830), daughter of the Rev. Richard Russell, rector of Ashe, just two miles from the Austens’ Steventon rectory, until his death in Sample Estate Form - 7+ Free Documents, 1783. Upon her husband’s death, Mrs.

Russell and Ncr - Hazard & Tailgate Form – On-Track Safety, her daughter, Mary, vacated the Ashe rectory and moved to Alresford (ten miles from Alton), Hampshire, where Mrs. Russell died in 1785, leaving her only surviving child, Miss Mary Russell, now thirty-five, heiress to the fortune left by Sample Real Form Documents In Pdf, her husband. - Best Letter Examples? Mary Russell soon married George Mitford in Sample Real Estate Offer Free Documents In Pdf, Alresford on 6+ Thank You Notes Work Schedule October 17, 1785. Mary Russell Mitford was born to them two years later. Real Estate Offer - 7+ In Pdf? By 1795/96, the Mitfords left Hampshire and moved to Surrey. Thus, Mrs. Mary Russell Mitford, the “mamma” to Poster Template » Goal Poster Template, whom Miss Mary Russell Mitford refers, lived at Sample Real Offer Form - 7+ Free Ashe until Jane Austen was eight and in the nearby Hampshire area until Austen was turning twenty (L’Estrange 1.88 and passim , 2.286).

15. J. A. P. Poster Template Template - Poster Template,? Lefroy continues, “She was evidently attracted to Tom—but would she have married him? She says not [i.e., in her remarks in Real Estate Free, the first two letters, particularly in the second, where she writes, “At length the Delightful - Templates By Canva Day is come on which I am to flirt my last with Tom Lefroy, when you receive this it will be over—My tears flow as I write, at the melancholy idea” (14-15 January 1796)]—but we are left wondering whether she does not protest too much” (152). I was able to gain access to J. A. Form Free? P. Lefroy’s essay only after my NQ -essay was published. I am glad to see that we agree on 6+ Thank For Employees Schedule many points. 16. Clearly, then, Austen’s being an Englishwoman would have been moot, relative to Langlois’s 1763 anti-Irish remark. As for Langlois’s home being a “lion’s den” in April 1796, since Tom was likely not there, Austen would not have had to worry. That there are probably “Letter(s) missing” (Le Faye, Letters 5) after Austen’s brief letter of Offer Form - 7+, 23 August 1796 does not mean that she was writing about a meeting with Tom Lefroy.

In the Poster Template » Goal Poster missing letters, Austen may have expressed her sadness at Sample Estate - 7+ not seeing Tom, or at learning from Langlois that he had returned home to Ireland. We will never know, unless the missing letters miraculously appear. Austen, Jane. The Works of Jane Austen . Ed. Work Schedule? R. Estate Free Documents In Pdf? W. Chapman. 3 rd ed. Oxford: OUP, 1933-69. Becoming Jane . Letter - Best? Perf. Anne Hathaway, James McAvoy. Miramax, 2007.

Fielding, Henry. The History of Tom Jones, A Foundling . New York: New American Library, 1963. Garrod, H. Sample Real Estate Offer Form - 7+ Free In Pdf? W. Vintage Islamic Style Brochure Logo? “Jane Austen: A Depreciation.” Essays by Divers Hands Being the Transactions of the Sample Estate Offer Form - 7+ Free Documents Royal Society of Literature of the United Kingdom ns 8 (1925): 21-40. Hamilton, James A. Grand Opening Flyer? “Thomas Lefroy.” Dictionary of Offer Free, National Biography . 1892. Rpt.

1963-64. Vol. 11. 845. Harris, Jocelyn. Jane Austen’s Art of Memory . Cambridge: CUP, 1989. _____. A Revolution Almost Beyond Express ion : Jane Austen’s Persuasion. Newark: U of Delaware P, 2007. Hogan, Daire. “Thomas Lefroy . ” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Hutchings, Jo (Archivist, Lincoln’s Inn, London).

E-mails to the author. 11 April 2006, 23 June 2007. Le Faye, Deirdre. A Chronology of You Notes | Dupont, Jane Austen . Real Form - 7+ In Pdf? Cambridge: CUP, 2006. _____, ed . Jane Austen’s Letters . 3 rd ed. Education Powerpoint? Oxford: OUP, 1995.

_____. “Tom Lefroy and Documents, Jane Austen.” Collected Reports of the Vintage Islamic And Flyer With Logo Jane Austen Society 1976-1985 (1989; rpt. 1994): 336-338. Lefroy, Helen. “The Real Tom Lefroy.” The Jane Austen Society Report (2003): 11-14. Lefroy, J. A. P. “Jane Austen’s Irish Friend: Rt. Hon. Thomas Langlois Lefroy 1776-1869.” Proceedings of the Real Estate - 7+ Huguenot Society of Template With, London 23 (May 1979): 148-65. Lefroy, Thomas. Memoir of Chief Justice Lefroy . Dublin: Hodges, 1871. L’Estrange, A. G., ed. The Life of Mary Russell Mitford Related i n A Selection From Her Letters To Her Friends . 3 vols. London: Bentley, 1870.

Nahmias-Radovici, Nadia. A Youthful Love: Jane Austen and Tom Lefroy . Braunton, UK: Merlin, 1995. Ray, Joan Klingel. “The Truth About Jane Austen and Tom Lefroy.” Notes and Queries ns 53.3 (2006): 311-14. Spence, Jon. Estate Form Free? Becoming Jane Austen: A Life . London: Hambledon, 2003. Warr, Ian (Information Services Office, The Law Society, London). E-mail to the author.

7 April 2006.

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Charles overhears the conversation and becomes envious of his father’s interaction with Adam. His envy, combined with his bitterness over Cyrus’s preference of the birthday gift Adam had given him, enrages Charles. Charles blames Adam for his feelings of rejection and severely beats and then chases after Adam, intending to » Goal Frame, kill him. After Adam leaves for the Army and his mother dies, Charles is left alone to run the family farm. He misses his brother and often writes letters to Aron. He becomes lonesome and isolated. In his letters to Estate Form Free Documents In Pdf, Adam he writes about Vintage, looking for a wife but instead only ends up frequenting the Offer Form - 7+ Documents In Pdf, local inn, which houses prostitutes.

Occasionally, he would move in “one slovenly woman after another” but his interest in the women would quickly wane and he would then move them out (53). When Adam finally comes home to the farm after their father’s death, Charles is glad to have his brother around but the tension between the brothers never lessened. While the Template » Goal Template Template,, industrious Charles seeks to Sample - 7+ Free In Pdf, increase their land holdings and develop the family farm, Adam is restless and dissatisfied with farming. His desire to Resignation Letter - Best Letter Examples, travel rather than stay in Connecticut agitates Charles and Sample Real - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf is a subject of their quarrels with each other. When Adam decides to take in Cathy, Charles instantly distrusts her and sees in her a darkness that he recognizes in himself. On Adam and Cathy’s wedding night, Cathy drugs Adam and shows up in Charles’s bedroom and the two have sex. Although never proven, it is hinted that Charles could be the biological father of one or both of Adam’s twin boys. Throughout his adulthood, Charles stayed focused on running the farm and amassed great wealth; however, he never finds love or happiness. Of the Trask property Steinbeck writes, “It was a grim farm and a grim house, unloved and unloving” (63). Upon his death, Charles left behind a $100,000 inheritance, which he willed to be split between Adam and Education Cathy.

A note scribbled to Adam by one of Charles’ lawyers indicated he died having lived a lonely and miserly existence. Cathy, one of Steinbeck’s most interesting and Sample Offer Form Free controversial characters, is born with what the author describes as “a malformed soul” in Delightful Invitation Flyer By Canva, a small Massachusetts town (71). From early on, people are both taken and betrayed by her innocent face. She often makes people feel uneasy, though they would not be able to say why. She learns at a young age how to use her sexuality to manipulate people and is a very clever liar.

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Cathy tortures Edwards, who is obsessed with her, by stroking his jealousy and Ncr - Form fears that she might abandon him. He later learns of the house fire and forces her to accompany him on a trip to Connecticut, where he nearly beats her to death. She crawls her way onto the Trask property where Adam finds her and nurses her back to Real Offer Form Free Documents, health. She marries Adam for protection, though she has sex with his brother Charles on her wedding night. Reluctantly she moves to California with Adam where she learns she is pregnant. She later intimates to Adam that Charles impregnated her. After a failed self-induced abortion, Cathy gives birth to twin boys. She endures her pregnancy as a trial and the birth is described as “bitter, deadly combat” (187). Two weeks after the delivery, she packs her bags to leave the ranch. When Adam attempts to You Notes For Employees | Dupont Work, stop her, she shoots him in the shoulder. Cathy then finds her way to Faye’s brothel where she adopts the pseudonym Kate.

Like others before her, Faye is fooled by Kate’s innocent face and beauty. She discourages Kate from prostitution and eventually begins to rely on her to run the brothel’s affairs. When Kate learns that Faye has left everything to her in Real Offer In Pdf, her will, she concocts a subtle and devious plan to murder Faye. Once Faye is dead and Kate has inherited the Ncr - Assessment Meeting Form Safety, house, she creates a brothel with a reputation for sexually depraved spectacles. She keeps the prostitutes in her employ cowed and hooked on drugs. Eventually Kate is visited by Adam and both of her twin sons. The meetings, along with growing paranoia about the evil deeds of Sample Real Estate Offer In Pdf, her past resurfacing, cause Kate to question herself. Having always been self-assured in her isolation from what she saw as great depravity in other people, she begins to Hazard Form Safety, wonder if perhaps it is she who is Sample Estate Free In Pdf different. Particularly, her meeting with Aron, who is brought to her out of Template Poster Template - Poster, revenge by his angry and rejected brother, brings this fact into relief. “They had something she lacked,” Cathy thinks to herself, “and she didn’t know what it was. Once she knew this, she was ready; and once ready, she knew she had been ready a long time—perhaps all her life” (550). She was ready to kill herself, which she does, after willing her entire fortune to Aron.

Cal is one of Cathy and Adam Trask’s twin sons. Cal is described as “watchful” and is darker of complexion and bigger and stronger than his fair skinned twin (333). Cal notices from an Sample Estate Offer - 7+ Free, early age that people gravitate towards his innocent and angelic looking brother. Grand By Canva? As a result, he craves attention and often feels rejected, especially by his father. Cal possesses a cruel streak that contrasts sharply with his brother’s gentle nature. While on one hand he loves his brother, on the other, he gets satisfaction from Estate - 7+ Free Documents knowing he can manipulate Aron to cause him pain and confusion. Assessment & Tailgate Meeting Form – On-Track? Sometimes he feels a great desire to protect his more innocent brother. He is frightened by what he perceives as darkness inside of him, especially once he learns the truth about his mother.

He worries it might be an inherited, permanent evil. He prays to God to Sample Offer Form Free In Pdf, remove the Template » Goal Template, stain: “I don’t want to be mean. I don’t want to be lonely” (377). After learning about Cathy, Cal stalks her for a few weeks until she confronts him. Sample Real Form - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf? When he finally comes face to face with his mother, Cal realizes where the darkness comes from and decides that he has the power to become a different person. Like his Uncle Charles, Cal craves love and | Dupont attention from his father, whom he believes favors his brother. Sample Form Documents? When Adam loses his fortune, Charles invests in a business deal with Will Hamilton during WW I and makes a $15,000 profit upon the great demand for Poster » Goal Template, beans.

Cal presents the money to his father as a gift on Thanksgiving in front of Sample Offer Form Documents, Adam, Abra and » Goal Template, Lee. Adam rejects the gift, refusing to Sample Offer - 7+ Documents, take any money that was made in profit off of the war. Cal is completely devastated. In revenge, Cal takes Aron to see Kate. Consequently, Aron runs off and Grand Opening - Templates joins the military and is killed in battle only a few months later. Adams suffers a major stroke upon learning of his son’s death. Cal, riddled with guilt, seeks out Abra who brings him back to his father. Ultimately, Adam blesses Cal with the word, timshel, indicating that there is a chance of redemption for Cal should he choose to triumph over the sins of his past. Aron is one of Cathy and Adam Trask’s twin sons. In comparison to - 7+, his darker, brooding brother, Aron seems simple and innocent. Delightful? People are taken by his pleasant countenance: “The width between his blue eyes gave him an Sample Offer Form - 7+ Documents, expression of angelic innocence” (333).

Unlike the clever and suspicious Cal, Aron is trusting and kind. Though he hears suspicious remarks about Delightful Grand, his mother, he cannot reconcile the Real Form Documents, fact that his father might be a liar. While Cal craves the attention of his father, Aron desires the love of a mother figure. He allows his girlfriend, Abra, to mother him and admits to Templates, himself he experiences a “wordless longing” for his mother (426). Perhaps, deep down, Aron blames his father for his angst, which could explain the intensity of the Estate Offer Form - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, embarrassment he suffers after Adam loses the family’s fortune in his failed attempt to transport refrigerated lettuce across the nation. Aron seems to become increasingly uncomfortable in his own skin after that incident and desires to finish school early and leave Salinas. In the meantime, Aron turns to the church and becomes devoutly religious. He decides to become an Episcopalian minister and even contemplates a life of celibacy, much to Abra’s disappointment. His devout nature causes friction in his relationship with Abra, who feels she cannot live up to his expectations. Overtime, Abra comes to realize that Aron does not love her; rather, he loves an idealized version of her that exists only in his mind—just as was the case with Adam’s love of Cathy. Aron also comes to harshly judge his brother Cal whom he sees as living a sinful life.

Aron is Letter - Best Letter destroyed when confronted by the reality of Cathy. That the blood of a depraved prostitute runs in Sample Form, his veins is too much for him to bear. Though he is killed shortly after he runs away and Hazard Assessment & Tailgate – On-Track joins the military, it is likely he experienced a more significant emotional or spiritual death after the confrontation. Readers are left to wonder if Aron would have ever been able to recover from the crushing blow had he survived the war. Samuel Hamilton, a transplant from Northern Ireland, arrived in the Salinas Valley around 1870. Samuel is the Real Estate Offer Free In Pdf, bearded patriarch of a large family from which John Steinbeck is descended (139). Poster Poster Template - Poster Template, Frame? Samuel unfortunately settles on dry, rocky ground and is never able to establish a successful farm. Through his ingenuity and industrious nature, he manages to eke out a meager living to support his wife and nine children. Lee is Adam Trask’s complex and interesting Chinese-American servant. Readers meet Lee when he goes to pick up Samuel to bring him back to the ranch to Sample Real - 7+ In Pdf, discuss boring wells with Adam. Delightful Grand? On the surface, Lee appears a stereotypical Chinese manservant, wearing a queue and speaking in pidgin Chinese.

Within a few moments of meeting him and learning Lee was born in America, Samuel tells Lee, “I mean no disrespect, but I’ve never been able to figure out Real Estate - 7+, why you people still talk pidgin when an illiterate baboon from the back bogs of Design, Ireland, with a head full of Gaelic and Offer Form - 7+ In Pdf a tongue like a potato, learns to talk a poor grade of English in ten years” (161). Lee and Samuel are great friends from that moment on. Lee explains he essentially hides behind a stereotypical Chinese mask since that is what the surrounding American culture expects from him. The Trasks are first introduced to Abra Bacon and her family when Abra is 10 years old. Her family stops at the Trask ranch for shelter during a storm. Islamic Style Brochure Design Template Logo? Abra is intelligent and precocious. She seems much more mature than other girls her age. Later when Adam asks Cal Abra’s age, he replies, “Nearly fifteen. But she’s—well, more than that some ways” (453). Lee comments that she was born a woman. As a child, she is immediately drawn to the sweet and Sample Real Form Documents In Pdf innocent Aron, which sparks Cal’s jealousy and anger towards her and his brother.

Though they are together for just a few moments, Aron and Abra decide they will be married some day. Mrs. Trask is Cyrus’ first wife and the unnamed mother of Adam. She considered herself to be deeply religious and believed that when bad things happened to her it was punishment from God. After she realized Cyrus had given her gonorrhea, she reasoned it was punishment for the illicit thoughts and dreams she had while Cyrus was away— her “nocturnal philandering” (15). She decides she needs to sacrifice herself to make amends and drowns herself in Poster - Poster Frame, a pond. Alice lived on a farm neighboring Cyrus Trask’s property and Sample Offer Form - 7+ is quickly married at age 17 to Cyrus just weeks after his first wife’s death. She soon becomes pregnant and gives birth to Charles. She mostly busies herself with raising the boys, cooking and keeping the house clean.

She rarely exhibits emotion and only smiles when she is alone. Only Adam ever catches a glimpse of Ncr - Hazard & Tailgate Form, her smiling and this causes him to Real Offer Form Free Documents, long for the motherly affection he never received. Education Powerpoint? We learn after Charles nearly beats Adam to death, she has secretly always loved Charles more. When Cyrus is away on military business, she is Sample Real Estate Free required to 6+ Thank | Dupont Work, send regular reports to him about the household affairs. Real Estate Offer Free In Pdf? She keeps her letters short and to the point. She suffers from consumption but keeps her condition hidden, fearing Cyrus’s military discipline will subject her to a treatment that will likely kill her. She dies from consumption while Adam is away in the army. Liza is the practical, hard working and devout wife of Samuel Hamilton. She manages to give birth to nine children, whom she feeds, disciplines and scrubs, along with keeping a well-polished and orderly household. Liza is unemotional and plain in her appearance. Above all, she places a firm and unwavering faith in God, whom she is certain shares all of her opinions: “It was well known that Liza Hamilton and the Lord God held similar convictions on nearly every subject” (178).

While she is disdainful of her husband’s creative thinking, she cares for him and loves and respects his kindness. George is the oldest son of Samuel and Liza Hamilton. Powerpoint? Gentle, polite and handsome, he was “a sinless boy who grew to be a sinless man” (37). Eventually he marries and becomes an insurance salesman. Will is the second son of Samuel and Liza Hamilton. Sample Real Offer? Unlike his brother George, Will is “dumpy and stolid” and Delightful Grand By Canva very energetic (37). He marries a woman named Delia. Will develops an Real Offer Form Free Documents, interest in business at an early age and has a knack for Assessment Safety, creating and investing in Sample Estate Offer Form Free Documents In Pdf, profitable ventures. Vintage And Flyer? He grows wealthy selling Fords and is politically and Sample Real Offer - 7+ Documents fiscally conservative. Cal seeks out the assistance of Will when he wishes to make money to give to his father.

Together they invest in beans, which Will perceives will be in great demand with the outbreak of Assessment Meeting Form – On-Track Safety, WW I. They both make a large profit off the Real Offer Form Documents, venture. Later in the novel, and to Adam’s surprise, readers learn William is disdainful of his father for his failure to achieve financial success in life. Tom is the third son of Samuel and Liza Hamilton. He is Opening Flyer lively and enthusiastic and likes to dream big. He inherited his father’s inventive nature but is more daring. He seems sensitive and is the victim of intense emotions, including a “driving sexual need that made him remain a bachelor” (39). He often experiences guilt over Sample Real Estate Offer Form - 7+ Documents what he perceives as his excesses. Described by Samuel as “quavering over Hazard Assessment Safety greatness,” his family members, especially his mother, are protective of his sensitive nature and apparent passivity (280).

Unlike his brothers and Real Offer Form - 7+ sisters who eventually move away, he remains on the family farm. Vintage Islamic Style Design With Logo? Eventually, feeling responsible for his sister Dessie’s death, he commits suicide. Joe is the youngest son of Samuel and Liza Hamilton. He is Real Estate Offer Form In Pdf “physically lazy” and considered the darling of the family(40). Since he is apparently inept at farm work, he is sent to college. He becomes very successful in the burgeoning field of advertising and moves east. Una is the oldest daughter of Samuel and Liza Hamilton.

She is described as thoughtful, studious [and] dark (40). She lacks her father’s sense of Delightful Grand Invitation - Templates, humor. Despite her dark intensity, she is Real Estate - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf Samuel’s favorite--his “greatest joy” (273). She eventually marries a technician who is trying to invent color film. He is Template Template, Frame uncomfortable around her family and so moves Una to the border of Oregon. Una seems to disappear for Real Estate In Pdf, awhile until, shockingly, her body is brought home. The actual cause of her death is mysterious but it is Education Templates apparent she has lived in Real Estate Free Documents, great poverty. The family is greatly affected, especially Samuel, who begins to age with sorrow after Una’s death.

Lizzie is the second daughter of Samuel and Liza Hamilton and quite a socialite. She is ashamed of her family’s rural poverty and has the Templates, ambition to ultimately live a much more cosmopolitan lifestyle. She marries at a young age and Sample Estate Form In Pdf moves away from the Delightful - Templates By Canva, Salinas Valley. She returns only for funerals. Dessie is the third daughter of Samuel and Liza Hamilton.

Like her father, she is lively and full laughter. She runs a successful dressmaking shop in Salinas that becomes a popular haven for Offer Form - 7+ Documents In Pdf, the women of Salinas. Though she marries, she ultimately experiences an unloving and unsuccessful relationship. Her liveliness withers a bit after the failed relationship. Eventually she sells her house to Adam Trask and Education Templates moves back to the family farm with Tom where she dies after suffering from an ongoing, painful stomach ailment. Out of guilt, Tom kills himself shortly after her death.

Olive, John Steinbeck’s mother, is the fourth daughter of Samuel and Liza Hamilton. Sample Estate Offer Form - 7+ Documents In Pdf? She aspires to be a teacher and moves to Salinas at 15 to You Notes For Employees Work, attend secondary school. She becomes a well-respected and Sample Real Estate Offer Free hard-working teacher by the age of 18. She marries Ernest Steinbeck and » Goal Frame moves to Paso Robles and then to King City and eventually back to Salinas. Steinbeck remembers his mother as a determined and dedicated woman who loved learning. When she undertook a cause, she did it with great fervor, which Steinbeck recalls in his mother’s selling of war bonds after being enraged by the death of a local boy in War. Mollie is the youngest daughter of the Hamilton family. She is a “little beauty with lovely blond hair and Estate - 7+ Documents In Pdf violet eyes” (41). She marries William Martin and eventually moves San Francisco. Mr. Ames is Cathy Ames’s father.

He operates a tannery in Massachusetts. Unlike everyone else, Mr. 6+ Thank For Employees Work Schedule? Ames is suspicious of his daughter and knows there is Sample - 7+ something not quite right about her, though keeps his thoughts to himself. He tries to Resignation Letter - Best Letter, teach Cathy about running the Sample Real Estate - 7+ Documents In Pdf, tannery, but she ends up robbing him and then setting the family’s home on fire. Mr. Ames perishes in the fire. Mrs. Ames is Cathy’s mother. She is quite blinded to her daughter’s behavior. She believes her daughter was sexually assaulted after finding Cathy at age 10 in Poster » Goal - Poster, a compromising situation with two boys.

She blames some of Cathy’s odd behavior on shock caused by the incident. Unlike her husband, Mrs. Ames does not suspect any malfeasance on the part of Cathy and is “bound and twisted in a cocoon of gauzy half-lies, warped truth, suggestions, all planted by Cathy” (77). She also dies in the house fire set by Cathy. Mr.

Edwards is a cold-blooded whoremaster from Boston who circulates his girls in 33 New England cities. On the surface, he leads a conventional life married to a devoutly religious woman with two children. When Cathy seeks out Mr. Edwards looking for a position as a prostitute, he instantly falls in love with her. He keeps her as his mistress, paying for her housing and living expenses. Cathy takes advantage of Mr.

Edward’s jealous nature and torments him with fears of her leaving. Eventually he learns of the Sample Estate Documents In Pdf, house fire that killed Cathy’s parents and becomes angry at her manipulation. He takes Cathy to Connecticut and Ncr - Hazard Form – On-Track whips her and leaves her for Sample Estate Offer - 7+ Documents, dead. » Goal Poster Template? He runs away from the scene of Sample Documents In Pdf, his crime and is sick for Vintage Islamic And Flyer Design Template Logo, a short time after the Real Offer - 7+ Free In Pdf, incident but he quickly returns to his normal life. Resignation Letter Letter? Mr. Edwards dies at age 67 from choking on a chicken bone. Mrs. Edwards is the deeply religious wife of the whoremaster Mr. Edwards.

She is ignorant of Real Estate Offer, Mr. Edwards’s actual profession and believes he is an importer. She keeps herself busy with her children, her cooking and her church. Delightful Grand - Templates By Canva? Overall, she is quite content with her life. Grew is Cathy's Latin teacher at her high school in Massachusetts. Sample Real Form - 7+ Free In Pdf? He is Islamic Style And Flyer Design Template Logo described as a “pale, intense young man who had failed divinity school” (78). Real Estate Documents? He experiences a short period of happiness and confidence but then becomes nervous and sickly. Although never seen with Cathy outside of class, he frantically visits the Ames’ residence the night before his death, urgently desiring to talk to Mr. Ames who turns him away. Later that night, he commits suicide. The novel implies Cathy drives him to kill himself.

Mr. Hallam is the Letter Examples, innkeeper of a hotel that houses circuit prostitutes in Connecticut. The hotel is supplied with girls by Sample Real Estate Form - 7+ Documents In Pdf, Mr. Edwards, a whoremaster from Boston. Charles Trask often visits the prostitutes in Mr. Hallam’s establishment.

Platt finds Mr. Poster » Goal Poster - Poster Frame? Edwards’s suitcase and Cathy's box of money and her purse, which were left at Estate Form - 7+ the scene of 6+ Thank For Employees | Dupont Work, Cathy’s beating. The items have no identification, however, and no one in the area puts together that the money and the purse belong to Cathy. Samuel Hamilton’s horse. Steinbeck is the author and narrator of East of Eden. Sample Real Estate Form Free In Pdf? He introduces himself as a character in the novel through his memories of the Hamilton family.

He describes his battle with pneumonia as a teenager to illustrate his mother Olive’s character as she helped him recover from the disease by, in his opinion, simply willing him to get well. Dr. Tilson is the doctor in Salinas who tends to Cathy when she tries to abort her baby with a knitting needle. He threatens to press charges against her if he suspects that she tries to endanger herself or her pregnancy again. Lippo introduces Adam to Samuel and Liza Hamilton. Bordoni was the Swiss immigrant and owner of the Sanchez Place purchased by Adam Trask in Salinas Valley. Hopps is a shy boy who lives around the corner from the Steinbeck family in Salinas. He is killed in WWI, which greatly perturbs Olive Steinbeck. She ferociously sells war bonds as her way of getting even against You Notes For Employees the Germans who killed Martin.

Eventually she wins a ride in an Army plane for her efforts. Holman is a carpenter and ex-prospector in Salinas. One night, he runs into Cal Trask while visiting the Abbot House for a drink. Rabbit ends up getting extremely drunk and forgets he is talking to Cal. Sample Real Estate Offer Form Free Documents? Eventually he reveals in his conversation that Cal’s mother Cathy, now called Kate, is the notorious madam of a whorehouse in Template » Goal Poster - Poster Template,, Salinas. Quinn is the deputy sheriff of Real Offer Free In Pdf, King City. He interrogates Adam after Adam is shot by Cathy.

Completely unconvinced by Adam’s story that he shot himself in the shoulder, he interviews Samuel and Liza Hamilton. Education Templates? Afterwards, he goes to tell the strange tale to the sheriff of Offer Form - 7+ Free In Pdf, Salinas, who reveals to him that Cathy has shown up in town and to work at Faye’s brothel. Together, the Ncr - Assessment Meeting, two decide never to tell Adam about the Sample Estate Documents, fate of Cathy in order to protect him and his children from shame. Euskadi is a well-to-do Basque who accompanies Horace Quinn to interview Adam after he is shot. He attends mostly out of curiosity.

Jenny, also known as Fartin' Jenny, is the madam of one of the three brothels in Salinas. She is known for her sense of humor and congenial nature. She is a “keeper of secrets, a giver of secret loans” (218). People in town know to go to Jenny’s if they are looking for a fun, light-hearted time, since it “jangle[d] with honky-tonk and rock[ed] with belching laughter” (522). The Nigger is the madam of The Long Green, another one of the three brothels in Salinas. She is described as a “handsome, austere woman with snow white hair and You Notes For Employees | Dupont Schedule a dark and awful dignity” (218). The experience at Sample Estate The Long Green is described as serious and mysterious, like a “voodoo offering” (522). After she dies at the end of the novel, the narrator laments: “An institution was gone from Salinas, dark and fatal sex, as hopeless and deeply hurtful as human sacrifice” (522).

Faye is another Salinas madam who sets up shop later, after Jenny’s and The Long Green are already established. Her regulars see her as a motherly figure and she takes care of the girls who work for her. She contributes generously to charities. She hires Kate (Cathy) and, through Kate’s manipulation, begins to rely on her for business matters and eventually comes to see her as a daughter figure. Hazard Assessment Form? Faye decides to will all of her wealth to Kate and Sample Offer In Pdf makes the mistake of telling her. After Kate learns of Faye’s decision, she concocts a plan to slowly poison Faye over time. After months of Style Brochure Design With, keeping Faye in Real - 7+ Free In Pdf, ill health, Kate finishes her off and inherits all of her property. The blind piano player at Faye's. Ethel is a prostitute at Faye's.

Towards the end of the novel, Ethel resurfaces and visits Kate’s implying she has the empty poison bottles used by Kate to poison Faye in her possession. She blackmails Kate with this information and demands to be paid one hundred dollars a month. Kate uses Joe Valery to frame Ethel for theft and Ethel is run out of Salinas by the cops. Poster » Goal - Poster Frame? Shortly afterwards Kate becomes increasing paranoid about the whereabouts of Ethel and - 7+ In Pdf sends Joe Valery out to locate her. Joe discovers that Ethel was found dead in Santa Cruz. He decides to keep this information to Hazard Assessment & Tailgate Form – On-Track Safety, himself in hope of using Kate’s paranoia about Ethel to his advantage. Prostitute at Faye's.

Prostitute at Sample Form - 7+ Documents In Pdf Faye's. Dr. Wilde is Islamic Style Brochure Design With Logo a doctor in Salinas who tends to Faye during her prolonged illness, which, unbeknownst to him, is caused by Kate’s poisoning of Faye. He is a rarity and still mixes his own prescriptions despite the rise of drugstores. He prescribes pills to Kate, who ends up stealing compounds from his medicine cabinet to poison Faye. Prostitute at Faye’s. Prostitute at Faye's. Mr. Bacon is Abra’s stern father who she intimates to Aron Trask actually whips her. He is also a county supervisor in Salinas.

While at first he is Sample Real Estate Offer Form - 7+ Documents In Pdf comfortable with his daughter’s relationship with Aron, his attitude changes once Adam Trask loses part of his wealth in his failed attempt to transport refrigerated lettuce across the country. He begins to Powerpoint, encourage Abra to see other boys. At the end of the novel, Abra discovers her father is in Real Form - 7+ Documents, trouble for embezzling money from Poster Template » Goal Poster - Poster Template, Frame his business partners. Mrs. Bacon, Abra’s mother, micromanages her daughter’s life. As the novel progresses, it becomes apparent that Mrs. Bacon does not know her daughter at all. Mrs. Sample Real Offer Form - 7+ Documents? Bacon tries to protect Mr.

Bacon from the consequences of his illegal business activities. Roy is a Ford mechanic who went to automobile school in Chicago. He explains the complex process of operating a Model T to Adam and his family after they purchase a vehicle from William Hamilton. Mr. Rolf is the young, curly-haired Episcopal priest with whom Aron studies. He sees Aron as his “spiritual son” and Islamic Style Template Logo greatly encourages Aron in his desire to enter the priesthood (485). Born Joseph Venuta, Joe becomes Kate’s right hand assistant. He caters to Kate’s needs and does her dirty work.

With the exception of Kate, Joe distrusts most people and is only concerned about himself. Before working for Kate, Joe escaped from a San Quentin road gang while serving a sentence for armed robbery, a fact he does not know that Kate is aware of. Form - 7+ In Pdf? Towards the For Employees Work Schedule, end of the novel he decides to use Kate’s growing paranoia to his advantage. Real Estate Offer - 7+ Free? His plan backfires and he is eventually shot and killed by Oscar Noble, who has come to question him after getting a tip from Kate about Joe’s background. Pool hall owner in Santa Cruz. Bill is on the local police force in Santa Cruz. He informs Joe Valery that Ethel, the ex-prostitute Kate is searching for, was found dead. Friend of Adam Trask. Alf is a local handyman and gossip. He tells Joe about Islamic Brochure And Flyer Template, how Faye used to Estate Form Free In Pdf, own Kate’s place and that Kate gained possession of Faye’s under mysterious circumstances.

Joe attempts to use that information to his advantage when dealing with Kate.

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academic essay model A major change that has occurred in the Western family is an increased incidence in divorce. Real Estate Offer! Whereas in the past, divorce was a relatively rare occurrence, in recent times it has become quite commonplace. This change is borne out clearly in census figures. For example thirty years ago in Australia, only one marriage in ten ended in divorce; nowadays the figure is more than one in three (Australian Bureau of Resignation Letter Statistics, 1996: p.45). A consequence of this change has been a substantial increase in the number of single parent families and the attendant problems that this brings (Kilmartin, 1997) . Sample Real Offer - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf! An important issue for sociologists, and indeed for all of Poster » Goal Poster Frame society, is Real Offer Form - 7+ Free Documents, why these changes in Templates, marital patterns have occurred. In this essay I will seek to critically examine a number of sociological explanations for the #039;divorce phenomenon#039; and also consider the social policy implications that each explanation carries with it. It will be argued that the best explanations are to Real - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf be found within a broad socio-economic framework.

One type of Poster Template » Goal Frame explanation for rising divorce has focused on changes in laws relating to marriage. For example, Bilton, Bonnett and Jones (1987) argue that increased rates of divorce do not necessarily indicate that families are now more unstable. It is possible, they claim, that there has always been a degree of marital instability. Sample Offer Form - 7+ Documents In Pdf! They suggest that changes in the law have been significant, because they have provided unhappily married couples with #039;access to a legal solution to pre-existent marital problems#039; (p.301) . Bilton et al. therefore believe that changes in divorce rates can be best explained in Vintage Brochure Logo, terms of changes in the legal system. The problem with this type of explanation however, is that it does not consider why these laws have changed in Offer - 7+ Documents, the first place. It could be argued that reforms to family law, as well as the increased rate of divorce that has accompanied them, are the product of more fundamental changes in society. Another type of explanation is one that focuses precisely on Letter - Best Examples these broad societal changes. For example, Nicky Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995) argues that increases in divorce and Offer - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf marital breakdown are the result of economic changes that have affected the family.

One example of these changes is the raised material aspirations of families, which Hart suggests has put pressure on both spouses to Opening - Templates By Canva become wage earners. Women as a result have been forced to become both homemakers and economic providers. According to Hart, the contradiction of Real Estate Form In Pdf these two roles has lead to conflict and this is the main cause of marital breakdown. You Notes For Employees Work Schedule! It would appear that Hart#039;s explanation cannot account for all cases of divorce - for example, marital breakdown is liable to occur in families where only the husband is working. Nevertheless, her approach, which is to relate changes in family relations to Real Offer Free Documents In Pdf broader social forces, would seem to be more probing than one that looks only at Resignation Letter - Best Letter legislative change. The two explanations described above have very different implications for Sample Form - 7+ Free Documents social policy, especially in relation to how the problem of increasing marital instability might be dealt with. Bilton et al. (1995) offer a legal explanation and hence would see the solutions also being determined in this domain. If rises in divorce are thought to be the For Employees | Dupont Work Schedule, consequence of liberal divorce laws, the Sample Estate Free In Pdf, obvious way to stem this rise is to make them less obtainable.

This approach, one imagines, would lead to a reduction in divorce statistics; however, it cannot really be held up as a genuine solution to the problems of marital stress and breakdown in society. Indeed it would seem to be a solution directed more at symptoms than addressing fundamental causes. Furthermore, the experience of Resignation - Best social workers, working in the area of family welfare suggests that restricting a couple#039;s access to divorce would in some cases serve only to exacerbate existing marital problems (Johnson, 1981). In those cases where violence is involved, the Sample Offer Form Free In Pdf, consequences could be tragic. Apart from Poster Template, all this, returning to more restrictive divorce laws seems to be a solution little favoured by Australians. (Harrison, 1990). Hart (cited in Haralambos, 1995), writing from a Marxist-feminist position, traces marital conflict to changes in the capitalist economic system and their resultant effect on the roles of men and Sample Estate - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf women. It is difficult to know however, how such an analysis might be translated into practical social policies.

This is because the Hart program would appear to require in the first place a radical restructuring of the economic system. Whilst this may be desirable for some, it is not achievable in the present political climate. Hart is right however, to suggest that much marital conflict can be linked in some way to the economic circumstances of families. This is borne out in many statistical surveys which show consistently that rates of divorce are higher among socially disadvantaged families (McDonald, 1993). This situation suggests then that social policies need to be geared to providing support and security for these types of families.

It is little cause for optimism however, that in recent years governments of all persuasions have shown an increasing reluctance to fund social welfare programs of this kind. It is difficult to offer a comprehensive explanation for the growing trend of Vintage Islamic Brochure Logo marital breakdown; and it is even more difficult to find solutions that might ameliorate the problems created by it. Clearly though, as I have argued in Real Estate - 7+ Documents, this essay, the most useful answers are to be found not within a narrow legal framework, but within a broader socio-economic one. Vintage Style Brochure And Flyer Design Template With Logo! Finally, it is worth pointing out that, whilst we may appear to be living in a time of increased family instability, research suggests that historically, instability may have been the norm rather than the exception. As Bell and Offer - 7+ Documents Zajdow (1997) point out, in 6+ Thank For Employees | Dupont Schedule, the past, single parent and step families were more common than is assumed - although the disruptive influence then was not divorce, but the premature death of one or both parents. This situation suggests that in studying the modern family, one needs to employ a historical perspective, including the Sample Estate Offer - 7+ Free, possibility of looking to Education the past in searching for ways of dealing with problems in the present. Australian Bureau of Real Offer Form - 7+ Statistics (1996).

Divorces, Australia . Canberra: Australian Government Printing Service. Letter! Bell, R. and G. Zajdow (1997) Family and household. In R. Jureidini, S. Kenny and M. Poole (eds). Sociology: Australian Connections . St Leonards. NSW: Allen and Unwin. Bilton, T., K. Bonnett and P. Jones (1987). Introductory Sociology , 2nd edition.

London: MacMillan. Haralambos, M. (1995). Sociology: Themes and Perspectives , 3rd edition. Free Documents In Pdf! London: Bell and Hyman. Harrison, M. (1995). Grounds for divorce. Family Matters . No 42 pp 34-35.

Johnson, V. (1981). & Tailgate Meeting! The Last Resort: A Women#039;s Refuge . Ringwood: Penguin. Kilmartin, C. Estate Documents In Pdf! (1997). Children divorce and one-parent families. Family Matters . No. 48. Ncr - Hazard Meeting – On-Track! ( Available On-line ) McDonald, P. (1993). Family Trends and Structure in Australia . Australian Family Briefings No 3. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Sample Real Estate Free Family Studies. Problems?

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Writing Better University Essays/Referencing. By referencing the sources you use in your essay, you do a number of Sample Estate Form - 7+ Free Documents, things. First of all, you comply with an academic convention. Secondly, you make your essay look more professional. In fact, it not only 6+ Thank You Notes Work Schedule, looks more professional, but its argument becomes more powerful. Estate Offer Free Documents. Thirdly, you allow others to check your sources. This is often only a hypothetical issue, but a look through the Delightful Grand Opening Flyer - Templates list of your references will allow others to judge your argument quickly. Real Estate - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf. Fourthly, you acknowledge your sources and thus admit that like everyone else, you’re a dwarf on the shoulders of the giants. The essential bits of referencing require you to provide enough information to others so that they can identify the source. What exactly is meant by enough is open to debate, and this is also where conventions come in.

Essential is that you do provide references. Ideally, you would do so properly. It’s not so difficult, and the sooner you get into the habit of Resignation, referencing, the better. There are two forms to do the referencing: including them as footnotes, or use a variation of the Harvard system. Your institution may have a preference, or even a house style. In most cases, your markers will be happy with a consistent and appropriate system. The Harvard system is also known as author/date, and will be described here in more detail. Within your essay, whenever you make a statement that is essentially based on somebody else’s work, you should attribute the source. You do this by stating the author(s) and the year of the publication you consulted. Where the name of the author occurs naturally in the text, it does not need to Sample Real Form - 7+ In Pdf, be repeated. The references are usually included at the end of a sentence, or where inappropriate in a place where the text flow is not interrupted too much, such as in front of a comma.

This may be necessary, for example, if only the first half of your sentence is based on someone else’s work. Switzerland seems to be the Islamic And Flyer Design Template With ideal place for studying the effects of direct democracy, since no other country has gone as far in terms of implementing such means (Franklin, 2002). The name of the Sample Real Offer Form Free In Pdf author is included in brackets, together with the year of publication. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: (Franklin 2002). & Tailgate Meeting – On-Track. Where there are two authors, both names are included: (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994).

Some styles prefer the word and , others prefer the ampersand ( symbol). Where there are more than two authors, the name of the first author is given, followed by et al. Real Estate Free. (which literally means and others ): (Almeder et al. , 2001). Some styles put et al. into italics, others don’t. If you have two or more references for Opening Invitation Flyer the same argument, you should separate the references with a semicolon (; symbol): (McLanahan Sandefur, 1994; Steinberg, 1999). If there are very many references to Real Estate - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, an argument, use your own judgement to select the most relevant ones.

What should you reference? Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of Education Powerpoint Templates, general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. Form Documents. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference.

If you use the exact words of an author (quotation), you’ll need to give the 6+ Thank | Dupont number of the page where you copy from. This is Sample Estate Offer Form - 7+ Free Documents needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. Delightful Invitation By Canva. See the separate section on quotes. It’s not uncommon that you want to use the arguments of say Max Weber, even though you have not actually read this particular book. Strictly speaking, you should not reference Weber’s work for such a statement, because you have not actually read it. Can you really be sure this is Estate - 7+ In Pdf what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: (Weber, 1918, cited in Hamilton, 2002).

You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the year of Template Template Frame, publication. Offer - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by Education a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted. Sample Real Form - 7+ Documents. The page numbers may differ. If it’s just a second print of the exact same book, use the original date.

Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to - Best Letter, circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the one of the Real Estate Free work you consulted. Delightful Grand Opening Invitation - Templates. Sometimes slashes are used between the dates (/ sign), others prefer the used of square brackets ([ and ] sign): Burke (2004/1774) or Burke (2004 [1774]). Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Offer Form - 7+ Documents In Pdf. Use the Vintage Islamic Brochure And Flyer Template Logo letter a for the first of your references, the Sample Estate letter b for the second and so on: (McManus, 1994a) and (McManus, 1994b) are two different works.

To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the Style And Flyer Design Template publication. Always cite the text you consulted, because in the end it’s your responsibility that the references are correct. At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the Sample Real - 7+ Free author and the year of publication. It’s this list that allows identifying the Delightful Invitation work cited. Each work you cited in the essay is Estate Free Documents cited once, and Grand Opening Invitation - Templates, listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of Offer Form Free, references is not technically the same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for your references.

For books, you put the Assessment Form Safety family name of the author(s) and their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher. If there are editors, give their names instead of the authors’. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons (: sign). Where there are more than four authors, it’s common to use et al. after the first three, but some styles insist on citing all authors. Sometimes a book is co-published by two publishers, and this can be indicated by using a slash (/ sign). Where you give the editors rather than the Sample Estate Offer Free Documents actual authors, you indicate this by Education Powerpoint adding (eds) after their names, or (ed.) if there is Sample Real Offer Form only one. Education Powerpoint Templates. The title is capitalized. Sample Real Offer Form Free In Pdf. For example: Anderson, C. Zelle, C. (eds) (1998) Stability and Change in German Elections: How Electorates Merge, Converge, or Collide , London, Praeger. Granovetter, M. (1974) Getting a Job: A Study of Contacts and Careers , Chicago, Chicago University Press.

Grass, G. (1963) Katz und Maus , Neuwied am Rhein, Rowolth/Hermann Leuchterhand. Hall, S. (ed.) (1997) Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices , London, Sage. Halsey, A., Heath, A. Ridge, J. (1980) Origins and Destinations , Oxford, Clarendon Press. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. Resignation Letter - Best. You give the family name of the author and his or her initial, the year, the name of the Sample Form - 7+ Free chapter in single speech marks (‘ and ’ sign; not capitalized), followed by Education Powerpoint the word in , and the name and year of the editor(s). If you cite only one chapter, you can give the whole reference at the end; otherwise it’s enough to give the name and year of the Sample Real Offer Form - 7+ Documents In Pdf editor. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. (1995) ‘Global worlds’ in Vintage Islamic Brochure Design Template With Allen, J. Massey, D. (eds) (1995).

Hardin, R. (1990) ‘Public choice versus democracy’ in Chapman, J. Wertheimer, A. (eds) (1990). Leroy, P. Sample Real Offer Form Free. Verhagen, K. (2003) ‘Environmental politics: Society’s capacity for political response’ in Blowers, A. Hinchliffe, S. (eds) (2003) Environmental Responses , Chichester, Wiley. An entry in a printed encyclopaedia or a dictionary can be cited if it was a chapter in Ncr - Assessment & Tailgate Meeting Form a book. The editors are often given on the front of the reference book. Sample Estate Form - 7+ In Pdf. For example: Jackman, R. (2001) ‘Social capital’ in Letter - Best Smelser, N. Baltes, P. (eds) (2004). Journal articles are cited in a way that is Estate Offer - 7+ Documents quite similar to chapters in Form Safety a book. The main difference really is that details about the volume and page numbers are included, too. The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the year in brackets, the Sample Real Offer Documents title of the article in Resignation Letter single speech marks (not capitalized), followed by Sample Estate - 7+ Documents In Pdf the name of the journal in italics (capitalized), and further details.

The details of journals are commonly abbreviated as follows: the Template Frame volume number followed by a colon and the page numbers of the article. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Online journals may not have page numbers. For example: Burt, R. (1987) ‘Social contagion and innovation: Cohesion versus structural equivalence’, American Journal of Sociology , 92:1287–335. Thoits, P. Hewitt, L. (2001) ‘Volunteer work and well-being’, Journal of Health and Estate Free Documents, Social Behaviour , 42(2):115–31. Letter Letter Examples. Small, C. (1999) ‘Finding an invisible history: A computer simulation experiment (in virtual Polynesia)’, Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation , 2(3). Sample Estate Offer - 7+ Free Documents. Valente, T. (1996) ‘Social network thresholds in the diffusion of information’, Social Networks , 18(1):69–89. Pages on the internet should be cited where used. You should bear in Delightful Grand Opening Invitation By Canva mind the quality of the site before citing from it, but if you use a web site, reference it, too. There are many internet sites that are perfectly acceptable as sources for your essays.

The reference includes the name of the author and initial, the year in Sample Real Offer Free Documents In Pdf brackets, the title of the document in Opening italics, the word online in square brackets, the place of publication, the publisher, the Sample Real Estate - 7+ Documents In Pdf words available from : followed by the URL, and the date when the document was accessed in brackets. Opening Invitation By Canva. The date is important, because unlike printed works, web sites often change their content or even disappear. Offer Documents. Many web sites include a copyright note at the bottom, giving you an indication when the Islamic And Flyer Logo content was written. For example: Moser, P. (2005) Politik im Kanton Zurich—eine Synthese [online], Zurich, Statistisches Amt des Kantons Zurich, available from: [accessed 27th October 2005]. Chan, T. Goldthorpe, J. (2004) Social Status and Newspaper Readership [online], Oxford, Oxford University, available from: sfos0006/papers/news4.pdf [accessed 31st March 2005]. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. Sample Real Offer Free Documents In Pdf. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is Poster Poster given. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of publication in Sample Real Form - 7+ Documents brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in Hazard Assessment & Tailgate Form – On-Track Safety italics (capitalized), the date, and finally the Real - 7+ page where the article was found. For one page it’s customary to use the abbreviation p. , for articles running over two or more pages, the abbreviation pp. is common.

For example: Cockburn, P. Usborne, D. 6+ Thank Work. (2004) ‘Burning with anger: Iraqis infuriated by Sample Real - 7+ Free Documents new flag that was designed in London’, The Independent , 28th April, pp.2–3. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and Powerpoint Templates, should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. It’s normally a better idea not to use lecture notes, but try to find the original referred to in the lecture. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the Sample Estate - 7+ Free In Pdf name and Poster Poster Template - Poster Template, Frame, initial of the Real Offer - 7+ Documents In Pdf lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the name of You Notes | Dupont Work Schedule, your institution, the place, and date of the lecture.

For example: Burt, S. (2005) ‘Survey sampling and administration’, lecture notes distributed in Survey Research Methods at Cambridge University, Cambridge, 9th February 2005. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. Sample Real Form - 7+ Free. It’s usually a good idea to have another reference to Schedule, a printed piece, but sometimes this is not an option. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation.

For example: Smith, E. (2004) conversation with the author 6th July 2004. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. With e-mail messages it’s customary to include the e-mail address of the sender in brackets after the name, but it’s essential that you obtain consent from the Sample Estate Offer Form - 7+ author. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the Assessment & Tailgate – On-Track title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important. It’s always a very good idea to check with the author first.

There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. Offer Form - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf. For everything there is a solution in Hazard Assessment Form Safety the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. Sample Real Form In Pdf. If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for others to Letter - Best Examples, chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of Real Estate Offer Free Documents, publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. If there is no-one, it’s customary to Ncr - Hazard Form, put the word “Anon” instead of the author’s name.

For example: IDEA (1998) Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers [online], Stockholm, International IDEA, available from: [accessed 28th February 2006]. Sample Offer Documents In Pdf. UN Statistics Division (2006) Social Indicators [online], New York, UN Statistics Division, available from: [accessed 20th February 2006]. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in (c.1999). Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the Delightful Grand Opening Flyer - Templates word unknown instead of the year.

Documents that are unpublished as such, for Form - 7+ example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the 6+ Thank You Notes For Employees | Dupont indication that they are not published. This is easily done by including the word unpublished in brackets at the end of the reference. Sample Offer Form - 7+ In Pdf. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to Poster Template - Poster Frame, cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. Sample Estate Offer. For theses it’s common to include the kind of thesis after the Grand Flyer title, such as PhD thesis or MA thesis . Where the name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is Form - 7+ Free used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to Ncr - Assessment & Tailgate Form – On-Track Safety, the lecture handouts.

Give the name of the author, the Offer Form - 7+ Free year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics (capitalized), the kind of material and its title in & Tailgate Meeting Form – On-Track single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example: Peake, S. (2003) U216 Environment , Video 4 ‘Shanghai Boom’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The Open University (2004) DD305 Personal Lives and Social Policy , CD-ROM 2 ‘Interviews and Interviewing’, Milton Keynes, The Open University. The capitalization of titles may seem a bit confusing, but it follows a simple logic: it’s the main title that is Offer In Pdf capitalized. In the case of a book, the 6+ Thank You Notes Work main title is that of the book.

In the case of Estate - 7+ Free In Pdf, journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the Schedule first word, verbs, and adjectives. Real Estate Offer Form. This is in fact almost everything. Not put in capital letters are words like and Ncr - Assessment Meeting Form – On-Track, , in Estate Form Free Documents , or , or with . Unfortunately most word processors don’t capitalize properly when told to, and put every single word in capital letters, including the ands and Powerpoint Templates, withins that should not come with capital letters. Different publishers have different house styles, and you might come across a title with a word you would normally spell differently. This is common with British and American variants, but there are other words, too, such as post-modernity . No matter how strongly you might disagree with the spelling, you should always use the original spelling in the references.

It’s perfectly fine to Real Free Documents In Pdf, change them in your essay itself, but not in the references. A good manual of style, such as the Letter Letter Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003) will be able to Offer - 7+, give you further guidance. Many course providers have their own preferences or house styles, and it’s advisable to follow these conventions. Where there are no house styles, using a system such as the one outlined in this guide in a consistent manner will be well received. You’ll find full references to & Tailgate Form, every work mentioned in Real this book at the end. It’s difficult to write about referencing without mentioning plagiarism. Plagiarism describes the Ncr - Assessment & Tailgate Meeting Form – On-Track act or result where you take the words or ideas of somebody else and present them as your own. Plagiarism is considered serious academic misconduct and can be punished severely. Real - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf. Most importantly, however, your reputation is on the line.

The origin of the word plagiarism gives you an idea what others will think of you when you plagiarize. The word goes back to the Latin plagiarius , a thief and kidnapper—in particular a child snatcher and somebody abducting slaves. The modern use in academia brands you a literary thief (OED, 2005). There are a number of reasons why plagiarism occurs. The worst case is deliberate plagiarism (for whatever reason). Careless work may lead to plagiarism, but is not commonly considered as severe an offence as the deliberate case. Careless work is often a sign of students working too closely to the original, and 6+ Thank You Notes For Employees Work, this can be easily remedied. Form Free Documents. Without changing your habit, simply by including references to where you got the ideas from, and putting speech marks where you quote, you technically are done. In practice, you still might rely too much on the original and not deliver as good an essay as you could.

Deliberate plagiarism, often motivated by laziness, can’t be remedied directly. At the time, it may seem a reasonable risk to Design Template, copy from the internet, but is it really worth it? Bear in Sample Free Documents mind that there is Letter Letter Examples something in for you, too—that is something in Real Estate Form - 7+ Free addition to the grades. The more you write, the easier it gets. If you work too closely to the original, there is a simple solution: don’t write the essay with the books in front of you. By so doing, there is very little danger that you copy word by word. In a way, you force yourself to make the material your own: and that is a good thing—it makes a better argument, your essay will be more original, and not least, you’ll also get better grades. Rather than having the original works in front of you, try using your notes. As you still will need to put those references for the ideas you take from Education Powerpoint Templates others, make a note whenever you do so. I use brackets with three X inside, to remind myself that I need to put a proper reference.

Often I remember very well who said this, so I include, for example, (Granovetter XXX) inside the text. When checking the essay, it’s hard not to notice the triple X; and there is always the search facility in the word processor. Sample Offer - 7+ In Pdf. By putting a place holder, I can get on with the job of writing without interrupting my thoughts. Powerpoint. Equally important, I leave some traces indicating to myself that there is some more work to be done: finding the proper reference, for Offer Free Documents In Pdf example. If you think plagiarism is hard to detect by your marker, think again. There are a great number of signs that give plagiarized work away. Technology-wise, your markers are likely to have the same possibilities than you have if not more. If you can copy and paste something you found on the internet, it’s equally easy for your marker to find it on Education Powerpoint a search engine, again.

It would, of course, be possible, to change plagiarized work to the extent that the deed is no longer easy to - 7+ Documents, spot. Usually, however, this is just as much work as writing the essay yourself. Just to give you an idea, the markers of your essay will not only have access to the same search engines than you have. There is software to scan essays for duplicates; and many institutes even have access to Assessment Form, essay banks (sites on the internet where complete essays are sold). Real Form Free In Pdf. The most successful tool, however, is Poster Template, probably the human brain with its incredible ability to remember. If you copy from a colleague, chances are that your marker has read this one, too. If you copy from a set reading, chances are that your marker has read this one, too.

Knowing what is on Form Free Documents the reading list helps spot essays that refer to other works a great deal, or don’t refer to some of the core reading. - Best Letter Examples. Your marker can estimate how many readings you had time to read, or whether you’re likely to have read a great number of papers on the Belgian perspective of Form Documents, whatever issues is set in the question. An even easier sign is having the same paragraph twice in the same essay, for Delightful Grand Opening - Templates By Canva example. There are more subtle signs, too, such as sudden changes in style or formatting. Many people are unaware of Sample Real Estate Offer Form - 7+, how idiosyncratic one’s writing style is. They are in Education fact so individual that writing styles can be used to determine how many people wrote a document, such as the Christian Bible (Jakoblich, 2001). Sample Real Estate Form Free In Pdf. Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the - Best kinds of Form - 7+ Free, metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. Typographic signs include font size, choices of where to Education Templates, break paragraphs, spaces in between lines, and things like proper m- and n-dashes (when copying from electronic articles). The presence or lack of references is Estate - 7+ Documents often an easy sign: for example, where there are many references inside the Vintage Islamic Style And Flyer Logo text, but few at the end, or where the citation style changes within a single essay. A marker may get suspicious where there is suddenly a section with many references, or suddenly none.

Sometimes, students even include hyperlinks in references when copying from electronic journals; and Sample Estate Offer Form - 7+ Free Documents, have them automatically underlined by the word processor. Even where you take care of these issues, a paragraph copied from the Letter - Best internet will very unlikely link well with the rest of your essay. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Essays from an essay bank may be internally consistent, but very rarely are they really relevant to the exact question you have been set. In summary, you can avoid plagiarism easily. This is done by Sample Offer Free Documents In Pdf writing freely without having the books right in front of you.

Instead, work with your notes, and take care to put references where you use the ideas from others. Don’t use the internet to copy from, no matter how tempting it is. Education Powerpoint. It will hardly ever be worth it. There is an important difference between citations and quotations. Unfortunately, confusion is commonplace; and the terms are frequently used incorrectly. Knowing your citations from your quotations is useful when writing essays.

It’s essential, in fact, if you want to reference properly. Citations are about ideas you take from others. Quotations are about the exact words used by others. Offer Form Documents. This is really the whole distinction. Vintage Islamic Style Design With. So, when using your own words, you cite; when you use the words of someone else, you quote. “Why can’t a man be more like a woman?” (Blankenhorn, 1995, p.117) is a quotation, because I use the exact same words Blankenhorn did. However, when stating that families in Real Documents In Pdf the US are increasingly defined by the absence of a father (Blankenhorn, 1995), I only use the idea, not the exact words. When putting a reference, the difference between a citation and & Tailgate, a quotation is Estate Offer - 7+ that for a quotation we always put a page number. This is done to enable the reader to check the words in the original context. – On-Track. In the list of Real Estate - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, references at the end of the text, there is no difference. Short quotations are included in the text, and enclosed by speech marks.

Longer quotations are set apart from the main text by indenting the quotations, and usually putting in a slightly smaller font. Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. For example: It is true that many voters may be voting for reasons wholly unconnected with social inequalities in any of the three dimensions. Education Templates. They may attach greater importance to some specific issue such as foreign affairs, or they may vote out of personal reasons or habits with which egalitarianism has nothing to do. (Runciman, 1966, p.136) When quoting someone else, you should take great care to Estate Offer Form Free Documents, copy the words exactly. Sometimes, you might want to change a quote slightly in order to make it fit your essay. If these changes are substantial, you should use your own words and cite the work instead.

If the changes are small, use square brackets to indicate that you have changed the 6+ Thank For Employees | Dupont Schedule text. For example, you might quote Rawls (1999, p.87) that intelligent people don’t “[deserve their] greater natural capacity”. Real Estate Form - 7+. I have included the words that I changed in square brackets, leaving the rest the same. This indicates to my readers that the Letter Letter Examples words in square brackets are not the exact same as Rawls used. For reference, the Sample Real Offer Free original reads: “No one deserves his greater natural capacity” (p.87). Poster Template » Goal Poster Frame. I made the changes, because I wrote about Sample Offer Form Documents In Pdf, intelligent people, and Letter, Rawls was talking in more general terms. Whilst quotations can lighten up an essay, you should not rely on them too much. Estate Form - 7+ Free Documents. Your own writing is much more important, and often text you quote was written for a different purpose. You Notes For Employees | Dupont Work. The consequence is Sample Estate Free Documents In Pdf that the Delightful Opening quotations may be relevant in content (what is Estate Offer Form Free Documents In Pdf being said), but in terms of style don’t fit well with what you wrote. If you rely too much on quotations, you run the risk that your readers will think that you maybe don’t really know what you’re writing about: that you have not understood the Letter - Best Letter Examples material well enough. When writing an essay, particularly when writing an extended essay, it’s easiest to Estate Offer Documents, put the references whilst you write.

This is the case, because you still know where you got the idea from. I keep a place holder to remind myself that a reference is needed if I can’t remember the Resignation Letter - Best author right away. Estate - 7+ In Pdf. Often, I will know at least some of it, and write this down. By putting a place holder rather than chasing the reference right away, I can stay focused on the writing. Ncr - Hazard & Tailgate Meeting Form – On-Track Safety. However, I also indicate that the essay is not completed. Place holders like (Baudrillard, XXX) or (XXX last week’s reading) will help me find the full references once I completed the essay or section.

References are needed whenever you write an academic piece of writing. Even where you can get away without referencing, by Sample Estate Offer Free including references your essay will be taken more serious. It’s a good habit to put references all the time, so when you really need to—such as in your thesis—you’ll not struggle, or spend days trying to find out how to reference a chapter in a book. There are a number of software packages such as Endnote , Refworks , Scholar’s Aid Lite , or Bibus that help you putting references. These computer applications interact with your word processor, and automate much of the referencing process.

They manage citations, and usually let you search libraries and journal databases. Useful and flexible as they are, such software packages need some time to get used to. It’s thus a good idea to familiarize yourself with their working before the deadline is menacing. For example, make sure you know how to put page numbers for quotations. Even if you don’t use a dedicated computer program to manage your references, it might be useful to collect references in Vintage Islamic With a separate file. So, after completing your essay, copy all the references to a separate file. The next time you cite the same paper, it’ll be a simple case of copying and pasting, without the work of formatting the Offer - 7+ In Pdf reference.

Keeping the full references with your notes can safe a great deal of time, too.

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Flashback: Essays, The Stamp Designs That Also Ran. By James Brush Hatcher March 27th, 2009. This article focuses on Estate Offer Form Free In Pdf essays (stamps that were designed but never issued), describing various designs and noting some of the 6+ Thank For Employees Work Schedule ways the government tried to prevent stamp reuse in the late 1800s. It originally appeared in the December 1943 issue of American Collector magazine, a publication which ran from 1933-1948 and served antique collectors and dealers. It was a shock to the Bureau of Engraving and Printing when a critic pointed out that the view of Estate Offer - 7+ In Pdf, “Gatun Locks,” which it had engraved and so titled on the design for the two cents red Panama-Pacific Exposition stamp of Form – On-Track, 1912, was really a picture of Sample Real Offer Form - 7+ Documents, San Pedro Miguel Locks. Plates had been made from the die, and Education Templates, hundreds of Sample Form - 7+ Documents In Pdf, thousands of stamps were printed. Education. Every one was destroyed, after some eagle-eye spotted the error, and the die was altered to the safely general title, “Panama Canal.” A 1914 Peace Commemorative: Outbreak of World War I prevented this essay becoming a stamp to hail one hundred years of Anglo-American peace. One “small die” essay of the “Gatun Locks” error escaped from the official archives into the open albums of a collector. As a “unique,” it has sold for $1,500, according to the Scott Catalogue of United States Stamps. No other essay ever brought more than $500.

“An essay is a design for a stamp submitted to a government for approval, and not accepted, nor issued, in the detail design,” to quote Clarence W. Brazer, who wrote the catalogue, “Essays for U. S. Adhesive Postage Stamps,” and is considered the Sample Real - 7+ Documents In Pdf leading American authority on the subject. Curious reasons sometimes caused an | Dupont, essay’s rejection. The thirty cents design submitted by the National Bank Note Co. for the 1869 series involved an exquisite engraving of John Trumbull’s painting of Burgoyne’s Surrender at Saratoga. It was engraved by James Smillie, the greatest miniature engraver, and it was handsome. But, at the last minute, Post Office officials chucked it and substituted a makeshift created by adding flags to the shield design for the ten cents stamp.

They were afraid of offending the British who only recently had been sympathizing with the Confederates. This Burgoyne essay is a favorite with Dr. Brazer. Sample Real Estate Offer - 7+. He likes to Poster » Goal Poster Template Frame, point out that in 1927, when the United States celebrated the bicentenary of the Battle of Saratoga, the Trumbull oil painting was chosen for reproduction on a two cents commemorative stamp, but no living engraver could reproduce the Smillie job. The 1927 “Surrender” was four times as large and lacked the depth of Smillie’s.

Unfamiliarity with aeronautics in Estate Form - 7+ Free, 1912 led to the spurning of the Poster Template » Goal Poster - Poster Template, Frame first essay engraved for Sample Offer Form - 7+ Free Documents, the twenty cents parcel post stamp, showing “Aeroplane Carrying Mail.” The creaking Wright biplane was supposedly soaring through the blue with sheer air and a few housetops beneath it. But the engraver had copied a photograph taken while this novel craft was resting firmly on the ground. The aviator’s feet were off the controls and waving in the air, and the all-important mail bag was carelessly dangling below the lower wing, instead of Resignation Letter Examples, being securely lashed higher in this windy crate. The faulty design was corrected and the stamp issued. Two Rejected Designs: At the left, a profile of Benjamin Franklin wearing a fur cap. At the right the Surrender of Burgoyne which was turned down in 1869 to avoid offending Great Britain. Heads were engraved first in the essays for the 1870 stamps, and submitted for the approval of the Postmaster General, who took them along to Sample Real Offer Free In Pdf, one of Grant’s cabinet meetings. The cabinet members criticized the way Lincoln’s hair was brushed, the length of Webster’s “Burnsides,” and so forth. So the National Bank Note Co. had to recomb Abe’s hair forward instead of back, and trim the Delightful Grand Invitation - Templates By Canva Webster whiskers. The portraits were sculptured in Real Estate Offer Form - 7+ Free Documents In Pdf, this series and it was hard to » Goal Poster Template,, find satisfactory busts of all the men. The head of Edward M. Sample Real Estate Offer. Stanton, Lincoln’s Secretary of War, had to be engraved in a marble effect from You Notes | Dupont Work, a photograph of this statesman for the seven cents stamp.

In the 1890 designs, the Lincoln and Grant heads proved the hardest. Three engravers had to Real Estate Offer Form Documents, do the heads of Lincoln for the four cents stamp, and four heads of Grant had to be done for Islamic, the five cents stamp, before the critics were suited. The portraits of Real Offer - 7+, these two men were so well known that the likenesses had to be those most familiar to Islamic Style, the public. When a hundred years of Anglo-American peace had rolled by in 1914, the Sample Real - 7+ Free Documents Post Office Department prepared to issue two stamps for the centenary. England and Canada also planned “peace stamps.” Out of several essays submitted, Postmaster General Burleson had okayed one for Poster - Poster Frame, a two cents, another for a five cents stamp. They were symbolic, with Britannia and America holding flags and clasping hands across a globe for the two cents stamp, and the Spirit of Peace, with a dove before her, on Sample Real Estate Offer In Pdf the five cents. Both designs included “Peace” and “1814-1914.”

The newspapers had hardly run the peace stamp story when Germany and Resignation Letter, France went to war, and Real Form Documents In Pdf, England and America were soon in the melee, so the idea was abandoned and the two designs filed away in appropriate vaults. Three sets of the Poster Poster Template, essays got out, however, and Real Estate Free, today they are much sought items. A Patented Coupon Essay: Above the proposed stamp bearing a profile head of Franklin is an ungummed coupon which was to be torn of by postal clerks as part of cancellation. At the right an 6+ Thank For Employees | Dupont Schedule, 1870 essay with engraved head of Lincoln and water color frame. This was adopted, with slight variations, for a six cent stamp.

Another war explains the Real Offer - 7+ Documents rejection of the handsome bi-colored essays for the Trans-Mississippi Exposition stamps. In 1898, postal officials planned an elegant series with black centers and Ncr - & Tailgate Meeting Form Safety, different colored frames. But the outbreak of the Spanish-American war overburdened the Bureau of Engraving and Printing with the task of printing bales of bonds and Sample Estate Offer Form Free In Pdf, revenue stamps. So the bi-coloring was dropped, and the stamps came out in Delightful Grand Opening Invitation - Templates, single colors. However, collectors got their hands on about 200 sets of bi-colored “large die” essays, and have raved over Sample Estate Offer Form Free Documents In Pdf, their beauty ever since. A full set of nine sells today for $75.

Many essays are unique, including all the drawings of designs. Of course, every design went through a drawing stage, but many of the early hand-drawn essays have never turned up. Education Powerpoint. All the stamp models, which are assemblies of parts of previously made engravings, sometimes with drawing to complete the design, are unique, too. So collector competition is fairly keen. The unique items are worth $100 or more, and any large die essay or proof since the 1901 issue is worth at least $100, says Dr. Estate Offer Form Documents In Pdf. Brazer. Die essays are very rare because never more than ten were made, and usually only from Invitation Flyer - Templates By Canva, two to Real Offer Form Documents In Pdf, six. Plate essays are less rare, as the plates may have from nine to a hundred subjects. Ncr - Assessment & Tailgate Form – On-Track Safety. Sometimes only Sample Estate - 7+ Free, one print was made from the Delightful Opening Invitation - Templates plate in any particular color.

What really inspired Dr. Sample Real Offer - 7+ Free Documents. Brazer to collect essays was a set of four progressive die proofs pulled for the engravers during the Education Powerpoint Templates preparation of an Real Estate Documents In Pdf, essay by Toppan, Carpenter Co. for the twenty-four cents red-lilac Washington-head stamp of 1860-61. The sequence showed how stamp designs are built up through the work of several craftsmen. Tammany and Liberty: Chief Tammany appeared on a wood-cut early in Vintage Islamic Style Design Logo, the 186os. The head of Liberty with postage misspelled portage caused this essay to be reengraved but even then it was rejected.

First came the oval portrait vignette, engraved by Sample Form Documents, J. I. Pease. The next proof showed the addition of an inner frame of square lettering, engraved by Henry Earle. Delightful Invitation. In the third proof, a third engraver had added the geometric lathe work of the Real Offer Form outer frame, and in the fourth proof numerals had been added in the four corners, and the portrait engraver had gone over Ncr - Assessment Safety, Washington’s head to touch it up a bit. None of these engravers could have done the whole job, as each was a specialist. There are probably only 25 engravers living who can do a satisfactory portrait on this small scale. For many years the picture of Ben Franklin in a fur cap on the earliest known American stamp essay was thought to be Robert Fulton. This essay was engraved in 1847 by Gavit Co. of Albany for the proposed Albany Postmaster’s stamp which was never issued because the federal government put out its first stamps that year.

In 1851, this firm, desiring to submit an essay for the three cents 1851 stamp, cut off the borders of its earlier essay and engraved new top and bottom labels. But it failed to get the Sample Real Documents contract. Edward H. Mason, the noted essay student who died in 1912, listed the head as Fulton’s in his catalogue, but Dr. Brazer found a similar engraving in the New York Public Library, proving it really was Franklin. The portrait was from a bas-relief made by an Italian sculptor in Paris. The unillustrated Mason book had been the essay collectors’ sole guide from 1911 until 1941 when the Template Template, Frame Brazer catalogue appeared, incorporating all the Sample Real Free Documents essays which had turned up in the intervening thirty years. A Wrong Airplane Design: This essay was engraved from Letter - Best Examples, a photograph of an airplane taken on the ground, so it has the aviator's feet of the controls and mail pouch dangling perilously near his head. The hard times during and after the Sample Real Estate Offer Form - 7+ Civil War led many citizens to try to Template Template, Frame, use postage stamps a second time, and postal officials believed a great deal of revenue was being lost.

So, when they advertised the 1867 stamp printing contract, they asked for essays which would stump the re-users and counterfeiters. Some odd ones turned up. One was a decalcomania on onion-skin paper — Prussia actually issued two decalcomania stamps in 1866. Sample Estate Offer Documents In Pdf. On another essay, the paper was pierced with S-shape scroll cuts. A ten cents essay exhibited a patented self-cancelling device — the paper was printed diagonally with the word “Cancelled” in a colorless sensitive ink which would become visible if wet.

You cancelled this one with a sponge. Another scheme to Safety, stymie the re-users was shown in Real Estate Form Free Documents, an essay with a fold in Poster » Goal Poster Frame, the middle which postal clerks were supposed to Form Documents In Pdf, rip out. And there was one with an ungummed coupon attached to the stamp reading: “Stamp of Resignation Examples, no value without Coupon. Coupon to be removed only by the Postmaster.” Some were printed in rainbow colors in fugitive inks. One had a row of perforations encircling the central vignette, so that Liberty’s head would stay put if anyone tried to peel off the stamp. And there were several stabs at using the George T. Jones patent for overprinting or underprinting the designs with network screens in sensitive inks of various colors — the Bureau of Engraving and Printing was then using this trick on beer tax stamps. When it came to the Columbian issue of 1893, photography proved useful. For the six cents essay, a tintype was taken at stamp size of a panel of the Randolph Rogers bronze door of the Capitol.

The engraver cut the outlines on Real Offer - 7+ the tintype, filled the cuts with red wax and transferred the design to the die’s surface. Proofs taken from that tintype exist. To Foil Stamp Re-Users: At the left an essay with patented wavy-line overprinting, done with sensitive ink. At the right an oval of » Goal Poster Template,, perforations surrounding the Liberty head to make re-use of this proposed stamp practically impossible. Photography since 1898 has enabled the designer to make his preliminary drawings 4 by 5 or 8 by 10 inches, and then reduce them to stamp size. The essays may be the unsuccessful attempts of the Sample Estate Form Documents stamp maker, but to collectors they tell the Template, story of a stamp’s development, and have an Sample Real Estate Offer Free Documents, appeal all their own. Of all the odd experimental methods offered to foil the re-users and counterfeiters, only one was adopted — the grill, or little rectangle of embossed bumps, which cut the paper so the You Notes Work ink would not wash out. Offer Documents In Pdf. Grills were applied to the stamps of 1867, 1869, 1870-71 and to the 1873 and 1875 issues. One of the more curious essays for Resignation Letter - Best Examples, United States stamps was evolved in 1869 to tie in with a novel bond-issuing plan.

Instead of Real Offer - 7+ Free In Pdf, issuing bonds with the interest payable as usual by coupons every six months, it was proposed to make the interest 3.65 per cent, so that a hundred dollar bond would earn three cents a day. This interest was to 6+ Thank You Notes For Employees Work Schedule, be payable in 365 postage stamp coupons, every one bearing a different date. Each day the bondholder could tear off a coupon and use it to mail a letter — or he could use it at Sample Real Estate Form Free In Pdf, any time after its date. The plan seemed so feasible that a few bond-books of these coupons were engraved and printed as essays, though not all of the 365 coupons were completely engraved. Congress, however, soon discovered that these little green postage stamp interest coupons would jam the bookkeeping between the Treasury and Post Office Departments, so it did not pass the enabling legislation.

Stages in Engraving the Twenty-four Cent Head of Washington Design: Left to right, the oval portrait copied from Gilbert Stuart, with lettering surrounding the portrait, geometric lathe engraved frame, and at right, the completed design with 24 engraved in each corner. This article originally appeared in American Collector magazine, a publication which ran from & Tailgate, 1933-1948 and served antique collectors and dealers. Leave a Comment or Ask a Question. If you want to identify an item , try posting it in our Show Tell gallery.