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lab write up ASA 7 th /8 th grade Scientific Reports Handout. This handout provides a general guide to writing reports about Picture Organizational For Powerpoint, scientific research you've performed. In addition to describing the conventional rules about the format and content of a lab report, we'll also attempt to convey why these rules exist, so you'll get a clearer, more dependable idea of how to approach this writing situation. Why do we write research reports? You did an experiment or study for Samples : Vatansun your science class, and now you have to write it up for your teacher to review. You feel that you understood the background sufficiently, designed and completed the study effectively, obtained useful data, and can use those data to Organizational Template draw conclusions about Fax Cover – Free Sample, Example, a scientific process or principle. But how exactly do you write all that?
What is your teacher expecting to see? To take some of the guesswork out of Template For Powerpoint answering these questions, try to think beyond the classroom setting. In fact, you and your teacher are both part of a scientific community, and the people who participate in Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487, this community tend to share the same values. As long as you understand and respect these values, your writing will likely meet the expectations of your audience—including your teacher. So why are you writing this research report?
The practical answer is Because the teacher assigned it, but that's classroom thinking. Generally speaking, people investigating some scientific hypothesis have a responsibility to the rest of the scientific world to report their findings, particularly if these findings add to or contradict previous ideas. As you can probably imagine, people reading such reports have two primary goals: They want to gather the information presented. They want to know that the findings are legitimate.
Your job as a writer, then, is to fulfill these two goals. Good question. You're probably familiar with the basic format scientists have designed for research reports: This format, sometimes called IMRAD, may take slightly different shapes depending on the discipline or audience; some ask you to include an abstract or separate section for the hypothesis, or call the Discussion section Conclusions, or change the order of the Picture For Powerpoint, sections (some professional and academic journals require the Methods section to appear last). Overall, however, the IMRAD format was devised to represent a textual version of the scientific method. The scientific method, you'll probably recall, involves developing a hypothesis, testing it, and deciding whether your findings support the hypothesis. In essence, the format for a research report in the sciences mirrors the scientific method but fleshes out the process a little. Below, you'll find a table that shows how each written section fits into the scientific method and what additional information it offers the reader. Scientific method step. states your hypothesis. explains how you derived that hypothesis and how it connects to previous research; gives the purpose of the experiment/study.
details how you tested your hypothesis. clarifies why you performed your study in that particular way. provides raw (i.e., uninterpreted) data collected. (perhaps) expresses the What's Resume Format Here | Infographic, data in table form, as an easy-to-read figure, or as percentages/ratios. considers whether the data you obtained support the Organizational Chart, hypothesis. explores the implications of your finding and judges the potential limitations of your experimental design. Thinking of your research report as based on the scientific method, but elaborated in the ways described above, may help you to meet your audience's expectations successfully.
Actually, we're going to proceed by explicitly connecting each section of the lab report to the scientific method, then explaining why and how you need to elaborate that section. It's important to understand that although this handout takes each section in On A And Objective, the order in Organizational Chart For Powerpoint, which it should be presented in the final report, you may for practical reasons decide to compose sections in Know The Latest Resume Format Resume, another order. For example, many writers find that composing their Methods and Results before the other sections help to clarify their idea of the experiment or study as a whole. You might consider using each assignment to practice different approaches to drafting the For Powerpoint, report, to find the order that works best for you. What should I do before drafting the lab report? The best way to 10+ Business Sheet – Free prepare to write the lab report is to make sure that you fully understand everything you need to about the experiment.
Obviously, if you don't quite know what went on Organizational during the lab, you're going to Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 find it difficult to Picture Chart Template explain the lab satisfactorily to Business 18 Managing Risk And Contingency someone else. To make sure you know enough to write the report, complete the following steps: Read your lab manual thoroughly, well before you start to carry out the experiment. Ask yourself the Picture, following questions: What are we going to do in this lab? (That is, what's the procedure?) Why are we going to do it that way? What are we hoping to No. 1 Case Of 2017: Of Rights Letter learn from this experiment? Why would we benefit from this knowledge? Answering these questions will lead you to a more complete understanding of the experiment, and this big picture will in turn help you write a successful lab report. Make use of your lab supervisor as you perform the lab.
If you don't know how to answer one of the questions above, for example, your lab supervisor will probably be able to Organizational Chart explain it to you (or, at least, help you figure it out). Plan the Case, steps of the experiment carefully with your lab partners. The less panicky running around you do, the more likely it is that you'll perform the experiment correctly and Organizational Chart For Powerpoint record your findings accurately. Risk And Contingency? Also, take some time to think about the best way to Picture organize the data before you have to start putting numbers down. If you can design a table to account for the data, that will tend to work much better than jotting results down hurriedly on a scrap piece of Examples On A Resume. Resume And Objective paper. Record the data carefully so you get them right. You won't be able to trust your conclusions if you have the wrong data, and your readers will know you messed up if the Chart For Powerpoint, other three people in Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487, your group have 97 degrees and you have 87.
Consult with your lab partners about everything you do. Lab groups often make one or two mistakes: two people do all the work while two have a nice chat, or everybody works together until the group finishes gathering the Picture Organizational Template, raw data, then scrams outta there. Collaborate with your partners, even when the experiment is over. What trends did you observe? Was the hypothesis supported? Did you all get the same results? What kind of No. 1 When A Reservation Letter figure should you use to Organizational Chart For Powerpoint represent your findings? The whole group can work together to answer these questions. Consider your audience. You may believe that audience is a non-issue: it's your lab TA, right?
Well, yes—but again, think beyond the classroom. If you write with only your lab instructor in Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487, mind, you may omit material that is crucial to a complete understanding of your experiment, because you assume the Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint, instructor knows all that stuff already. As a result, you may receive a lower grade, since your TA won't be sure that you understand all the principles at work. Try to Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 write towards a student in the same course but a different lab section. That student will have a fair degree of scientific expertise but won't know much about your experiment particularly. Alternatively, you could envision yourself five years from now, after the reading and lectures for this course have faded a bit. Picture Chart Template? What would you remember, and what would you need explained more clearly (as a refresher)? Once you've completed these steps as you perform the experiment, you'll be in a good position to draft an effective lab report. How do I write a strong Introduction?
For the purposes of this handout, we'll consider the 10+ Business Sheet – Free Sample, Example, Introduction to Template contain four basic elements: the purpose, the scientific literature relevant to With Samples : Vatansun the subject, the hypothesis, and the reasons you believed your hypothesis viable. Let's start by Chart going through each element of the Introduction to clarify what it covers and why it's important. Then we can formulate a logical organizational strategy for Examples On A Resume. Resume And Objective the section. The inclusion of the purpose (sometimes called the objective) of the experiment often confuses writers. The biggest misconception is Picture Organizational Chart, that the purpose is the same as the hypothesis. Not quite.
We'll get to hypotheses in Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487, a minute, but basically they provide some indication of what you expect the experiment to show. Chart Template? The purpose is broader, and deals more with what you expect to gain through the experiment. Termination With Samples : Vatansun? In a professional setting, the hypothesis might have something to do with how cells react to Organizational Template For Powerpoint a certain kind of genetic manipulation, but the purpose of the experiment is to Know Resume | Infographic Resume learn more about potential cancer treatments. Picture Organizational? Undergraduate reports don't often have this wide-ranging a goal, but you should still try to maintain the distinction between your hypothesis and your purpose. No. 1 When A Reservation Of Rights? In a solubility experiment, for example, your hypothesis might talk about the relationship between temperature and Picture Organizational Chart For Powerpoint the rate of solubility, but the purpose is probably to Termination With Samples learn more about some specific scientific principle underlying the process of Picture Organizational solubility. For starters, most people say that you should write out Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 your working hypothesis before you perform the experiment or study. Picture Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint? Many beginning science students neglect to do so and find themselves struggling to remember precisely which variables were involved in the process or in what way the What's Resume | Infographic Resume, researchers felt that they were related. Write your hypothesis down as you develop it—you'll be glad you did. As for the form a hypothesis should take, it's best not to be too fancy or complicated; an inventive style isn't nearly so important as clarity here.
There's nothing wrong with beginning your hypothesis with the phrase, It was hypothesized that . . . Be as specific as you can about the Picture Organizational Chart, relationship between the different objects of your study. In other words, explain that when term A changes, term B changes in this particular way. Readers of scientific writing are rarely content with the No. 1 Coverage Case Of Rights Letter, idea that a relationship between two terms exists—they want to know what that relationship entails. Not a hypothesis : It was hypothesized that there is a significant relationship between the temperature of a solvent and the rate at which a solute dissolves. Hypothesis : It was hypothesized that as the temperature of a solvent increases, the rate at Picture For Powerpoint, which a solute will dissolve in that solvent increases. Put more technically, most hypotheses contain both an independent and a dependent variable. The independent variable is what you manipulate to test the reaction; the dependent variable is what changes as a result of your manipulation. In the example above, the independent variable is the temperature of the solvent, and the dependent variable is the rate of solubility. Risk Plan; Risk? Be sure that your hypothesis includes both variables.
Justify your hypothesis. You need to do more than tell your readers what your hypothesis is; you also need to assure them that this hypothesis was reasonable, given the circumstances. In other words, use the Introduction to Organizational For Powerpoint explain that you didn't just pluck your hypothesis out of Termination Letter With Samples thin air. (If you did pluck it out of thin air, your problems with your report will probably extend beyond using the appropriate format.) If you posit that a particular relationship exists between the independent and the dependent variable, what led you to believe your guess might be supported by evidence? Scientists often refer to this type of justification as motivating the hypothesis, in the sense that something propelled them to make that prediction. Often, motivation includes what we already know—or rather, what scientists generally accept as true (see Background/previous research below). But you can also motivate your hypothesis by Picture Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint relying on logic or on your own observations.
If you're trying to decide which solutes will dissolve more rapidly in a solvent at Examples, increased temperatures, you might remember that some solids are meant to dissolve in hot water (e.g., bouillon cubes) and some are used for a function precisely because they withstand higher temperatures (they make saucepans out of something). Picture Organizational Chart? Or you can think about Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487, whether you've noticed sugar dissolving more rapidly in Picture Chart For Powerpoint, your glass of iced tea or in 10+ Business Example, your cup of coffee. Picture Organizational Chart For Powerpoint? Even such basic, outside-the-lab observations can help you justify your hypothesis as reasonable. This part of the Introduction demonstrates to the reader your awareness of Know Resume Format Here | Infographic Resume how you're building on other scientists' work. If you think of the scientific community as engaging in a series of conversations about various topics, then you'll recognize that the Picture Organizational Chart Template, relevant background material will alert the reader to which conversation you want to Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 enter.
Generally speaking, authors writing journal articles use the Chart Template, background for slightly different purposes than do students completing assignments. Because readers of academic journals tend to Templates Example be professionals in Picture Chart Template, the field, authors explain the background in What's Resume Resume, order to permit readers to evaluate the study's pertinence for their own work. You, on the other hand, write toward a much narrower audience—your peers in the course or your lab instructor—and so you must demonstrate that you understand the context for the (presumably assigned) experiment or study you've completed. For example, if your professor has been talking about polarity during lectures, and you're doing a solubility experiment, you might try to connect the polarity of Organizational Chart a solid to its relative solubility in certain solvents. In any event, both professional researchers and undergraduates need to connect the background material overtly to their own work. Organization of this section.
Most of the time, writers begin by stating the purpose or objectives of their own work, which establishes for the reader's benefit the nature and scope of the problem investigated (Day 1994). Once you have expressed your purpose, you should then find it easier to move from the general purpose, to Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 relevant material on Picture For Powerpoint the subject, to your hypothesis. In abbreviated form, an Introduction section might look like this: The purpose of the experiment was to test conventional ideas about solubility in Know Resume Here, the laboratory [purpose] . . . According to Whitecoat and Labrat (1999), at higher temperatures the molecules of Organizational Chart solvents move more quickly . . . We know from the class lecture that molecules moving at higher rates of speed collide with one another more often and thus break down more easily [background material/motivation] . . . Thus, it was hypothesized that as the temperature of a solvent increases, the rate at which a solute will dissolve in that solvent increases [hypothesis]. Again—these are guidelines, not commandments. Some writers and readers prefer different structures for Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 the Introduction. The one above merely illustrates a common approach to organizing material. How do I write a strong Materials and Methods section? As with any piece of Picture Chart Template For Powerpoint writing, your Methods section will succeed only if it fulfills its readers' expectations, so you need to Plans. Business Risk And Contingency be clear in your own mind about the purpose of Picture Chart For Powerpoint this section. Let's review the purpose as we described it above: in this section, you want to describe in detail how you tested the hypothesis you developed and also to clarify the rationale for your procedure.
In science, it's not sufficient merely to design and carry out an experiment. Ultimately, others must be able to verify your findings, so your experiment must be reproducible, to the extent that other researchers can follow the same procedure and Business Plan; And Contingency obtain the same (or similar) results. Here's a real-world example of the importance of reproducibility. In 1989, physicists Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischman announced that they had discovered cold fusion, a way of producing excess heat and Chart For Powerpoint power without the nuclear radiation that accompanies hot fusion. Such a discovery could have great ramifications for the industrial production of energy, so these findings created a great deal of interest. When other scientists tried to duplicate the experiment, however, they didn't achieve the same results, and as a result many wrote off the conclusions as unjustified (or worse, a hoax).
To this day, the Fax Cover Sheet Templates Sample,, viability of cold fusion is debated within the scientific community, even though an increasing number of researchers believe it possible. Chart Template? So when you write your Methods section, keep in mind that you need to Termination : Vatansun describe your experiment well enough to allow others to Picture Organizational Chart For Powerpoint replicate it exactly. With these goals in mind, let's consider how to write an effective Methods section in terms of content, structure, and style. Sometimes the hardest thing about writing this section isn't what you should talk about, but what you shouldn't talk about. Writers often want to include the results of their experiment, because they measured and recorded the results during the course of the experiment. But such data should be reserved for the Results section. In the Methods section, you can write that you recorded the Fax Cover Sheet Templates – Free, results, or how you recorded the results (e.g., in a table), but you shouldn't write what the results were—not yet. Picture Organizational? Here, you're merely stating exactly how you went about testing your hypothesis. How much detail?
Be precise in providing details, but stay relevant. The Latest Here | Infographic? Ask yourself, Would it make any difference if this piece were a different size or made from a different material? If not, you probably don't need to get too specific. Chart? If so, you should give as many details as necessary to Employee Termination Letter With prevent this experiment from Template going awry if someone else tries to carry it out. Probably the most crucial detail is measurement; you should always quantify anything you can, such as time elapsed, temperature, mass, volume, etc. Rationale: Be sure that as you're relating your actions during the experiment, you explain your rationale for the protocol you developed. If you capped a test tube immediately after adding a solute to a solvent, why did you do that? (That's really two questions: why did you cap it, and why did you cap it immediately?) In a professional setting, writers provide their rationale as a way to Coverage Case When explain their thinking to potential critics. On one hand, of course, that's your motivation for talking about protocol, too.
On the other hand, since in practical terms you're also writing to your teacher (who's seeking to evaluate how well you comprehend the principles of the experiment), explaining the Picture Organizational Chart For Powerpoint, rationale indicates that you understand the reasons for conducting the experiment in that way, and that you're not just following orders. Critical thinking is crucial—robots don't make good scientists. Samples : Vatansun? Control: Most experiments will include a control, which is a means of comparing experimental results. (Sometimes you'll need to have more than one control, depending on the number of hypotheses you want to test.) The control is exactly the same as the other items you're testing, except that you don't manipulate the independent variable-the condition you're altering to check the effect on the dependent variable. Picture Chart Template? For example, if you're testing solubility rates at increased temperatures, your control would be a solution that you didn't heat at all; that way, you'll see how quickly the solute dissolves naturally (i.e., without manipulation), and you'll have a point of Of Objective Resume. And Objective reference against Picture Chart For Powerpoint which to compare the solutions you did heat. Describe the control in the Methods section. Two things are especially important in writing about the control: identify the Know The Latest Resume Format Here Resume, control as a control, and explain what you're controlling for. Example: As a control for Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint the temperature change, we placed the same amount of solute in the same amount of solvent, and let the solution stand for five minutes without heating it. Structure and style.
Organization is especially important in the Methods section of Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 a lab report because readers must understand your experimental procedure completely. Many writers are surprised by the difficulty of conveying what they did during the experiment, since after all they're only reporting an event, but it's often tricky to present this information in a coherent way. There's a fairly standard structure you can use to Picture guide you, and following the conventions for style can help clarify your points. Subsections: Occasionally, researchers use subsections to report their procedure when the following circumstances apply: 1) if they've used a great many materials; 2) if the procedure is unusually complicated; 3) if they've developed a procedure that won't be familiar to many of their readers. Because these conditions rarely apply to Case When A Reservation the experiments you'll perform in class, most undergraduate lab reports won't require you to use subsections. In fact, many guides to writing lab reports suggest that you try to limit your Methods section to a single paragraph. Narrative structure: Think of this section as telling a story about Organizational Chart For Powerpoint, a group of people and the experiment they performed. Describe what you did in Plan;, the order in which you did it. You may have heard the old joke centered on the line, Disconnect the red wire, but only after disconnecting the green wire, where the person reading the directions blows everything to Template kingdom come because the directions weren't in order. We're used to reading about events chronologically, and so your readers will generally understand what you did if you present that information in – Free Sample,, the same way. Also, since the Organizational, Methods section does generally appear as a narrative (story), you want to Employee Letter Samples avoid the recipe approach: First, take a clean, dry 100 ml test tube from the rack.
Next, add 50 ml of distilled water. You should be reporting what did happen, not telling the reader how to perform the experiment: 50 ml of Template For Powerpoint distilled water was poured into a clean, dry 100 ml test tube. Hint: most of the 10+ Business – Free Sample, Example, time, the Picture Organizational, recipe approach comes from copying down the 10+ Business Fax Cover Templates, steps of the procedure from Picture Organizational Chart Template your lab manual, so you may want to draft the Methods section initially without consulting your manual. Later, of Termination Letter : Vatansun course, you can go back and fill in any part of the procedure you inadvertently overlooked. Past tense: Remember that you're describing what happened, so you should use past tense to refer to everything you did during the experiment. Writers are often tempted to use the Picture Chart, imperative (Add 5 g of the Employee Termination With Samples, solid to the solution) because that's how their lab manuals are worded; less frequently, they use present tense (5 g of the solid are added to the solution). Instead, remember that you're talking about an event which happened at a particular time in Picture Organizational Chart For Powerpoint, the past, and which has already ended by the time you start writing, so simple past tense will be appropriate in Know What's Here, this section (5 g of the solid were added to the solution or We added 5 g of the solid to the solution). Passive voice vs. first person: In the Organizational For Powerpoint, past, scientific journals encouraged their writers to avoid using the first person (I or we), because the researchers themselves weren't personally important to the procedure in the experiment. Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487? Remember that other researchers should ideally be able to reproduce experiments exactly, based on the lab report; using first person indicates (to some readers) that the experiment cannot be duplicated without the original researchers present. To help keep personal references out of lab reports, scientific conventions also dictated that researchers should use passive voice, in which the subject of a sentence or clause doesn't perform the action described by the verb.
You can learn more in Organizational Chart, our handout on Termination Letter Samples : Vatansun passive voice , but these examples might explain the distinction between active and passive voice: Active: We heated the solution to 80°C. (The subject, we, performs the Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint, action, heating.) Passive: The solution was heated to 80°C. (The subject, solution, doesn't do the heating--it is acted upon, not acting.) Increasingly, especially in the social sciences, using first person and Of Objective active voice is acceptable in scientific reports. Picture Chart Template For Powerpoint? Most readers find that this style of Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 writing conveys information more directly and therefore more clearly and concisely. This rhetorical choice thus brings two scientific values into Chart Template For Powerpoint, conflict: objectivity versus clarity. Since the scientific community hasn't reached a consensus about which style it prefers, you may want to ask your lab instructor. How do I write a strong Results section? Here's a paradox for you.
The Results section is often both the shortest (yay!) and most important (uh-oh!) part of Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 your report. Your Materials and Methods section shows how you obtained the results, and your Discussion section explores the significance of the results, so clearly the Results section forms the backbone of the lab report. This section provides the For Powerpoint, most critical information about your experiment: the data that allow you to discuss how your hypothesis was or wasn't supported. But it doesn't provide anything else, which explains why this section is generally shorter than the others. Before you write this section, look at all the data you collected to figure out what relates significantly to your hypothesis. You'll want to highlight this material in your Results section. Resist the urge to include every bit of data you collected, since perhaps not all are relevant. Also, don't try to draw conclusions about the results—save them for the Discussion section. In this section, you're reporting facts. Nothing your readers can dispute should appear in the Results section.
Most Results sections feature three distinct parts: text, tables, and Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 figures. Let's consider each part one at Picture Organizational Template For Powerpoint, a time. This should be a short paragraph, generally just a few lines, that describes the Know What's The Latest Here, results you obtained from Picture Chart Template For Powerpoint your experiment. In a relatively simple experiment, one that doesn't produce a lot of Plans. Business Plan; 18 Managing data for Picture Organizational Template For Powerpoint you to repeat, the Examples On A Resume And Objective, text can represent the entire Results section. Don't feel that you need to include lots of extraneous detail to compensate for a short (but effective) text; your readers appreciate discrimination more than your ability to Picture Template recite facts. In a more complex experiment, you may want to use tables and/or figures to – Free Sample, help guide your readers toward the most important information you gathered. In that event, you'll need to refer to each table or figure directly, where appropriate: Table 1 lists the rates of solubility for each substance or Solubility increased as the temperature of the Picture Chart Template, solution increased (see Figure 1). Know What's The Latest Resume Here? If you do use tables or figures, make sure that you don't present the same material in Chart Template, both the 10+ Business – Free Sample, Example, text and Picture Organizational Template For Powerpoint the tables/figures, since in essence you'll just repeat yourself, probably annoying your readers with the redundancy of your statements.
Feel free to describe trends that emerge as you examine the data. Know The Latest Resume? Although identifying trends requires some judgment on Organizational your part and Employee Termination Letter Samples : Vatansun so may not feel like factual reporting, no one can deny that these trends do exist, and so they properly belong in the Results section. Example: Heating the solution increased the Chart For Powerpoint, rate of solubility of polar solids by 45% but had no effect on the rate of solubility in solutions containing non-polar solids. Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487? This point isn't debatable—you're just pointing out Picture Template what the data show. As in the Materials and Methods section, you want to refer to Fax Cover – Free your data in Template For Powerpoint, the past tense, because the events you recorded have already occurred and have finished occurring. Fax Cover Templates – Free? In the example above, note the Chart Template For Powerpoint, use of Risk Business Plan; Risk And Contingency increased and had, rather than increases and has. (You don't know from your experiment that heating always increases the Picture Organizational For Powerpoint, solubility of Fax Cover Templates Sample, Example polar solids, but it did that time.) You shouldn't put information in the table that also appears in the text or use a table to present irrelevant data, just to show you did collect these data during the Picture Organizational Chart Template, experiment. Tables are good for some purposes and situations, but not others, so whether and how you'll use tables depends upon what you need them to accomplish.
Tables are useful ways to show variation in data, but not to present a great deal of Risk Plans. Business 18 Managing Risk unchanging measurements. If you're dealing with a scientific phenomenon that occurs only within a certain range of temperatures, for Organizational Chart Template example, you don't need to use a table to show that the phenomenon didn't occur at any of the other temperatures. How useful is Risk Plans. 18 Managing Risk And Contingency, this table? As you can probably see, no solubility was observed until the trial temperature reached 50°C, a fact that the text part of the Results section could easily convey. The table could then be limited to what happened at 50°C and higher, thus better illustrating the differences in Picture Organizational Template For Powerpoint, solubility rates when solubility did occur. As a rule, try not to use a table to describe any experimental event you can cover in one sentence of Resume. Resume text.
Here's an example of an unnecessary table from How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper, by Robert A. Day: As Day notes, all the information in this table can be summarized in one sentence: S. griseus, S. coelicolor, S. everycolor, and Organizational Chart For Powerpoint S. rainbowenski grew under aerobic conditions, whereas S. Employee Termination Letter Samples? nocolor and S. greenicus required anaerobic conditions. Most readers won't find the Organizational Chart For Powerpoint, table clearer than that one sentence. When you do have reason to tabulate material, pay attention to the clarity and readability of the format you use. Here are a few tips: Number your table. Employee Termination With? Then, when you refer to Chart For Powerpoint the table in the text, use that number to tell your readers which table they can review to clarify the material. Give your table a title.
This title should be descriptive enough to communicate the Examples On A Resume, contents of the table, but not so long that it becomes difficult to follow. Picture Organizational Template For Powerpoint? The titles in Employee, the sample tables above are acceptable. Arrange your table so that readers read vertically, not horizontally. For the most part, this rule means that you should construct your table so that like elements read down, not across. Think about what you want your readers to compare, and put that information in the column (up and down) rather than in the row (across). Usually, the Picture Organizational For Powerpoint, point of comparison will be the numerical data you collect, so especially make sure you have columns of numbers, not rows. Here's an With Samples, example of how drastically this decision affects the readability of your table (from A Short Guide to Writing about Chart Template, Chemistry, by Herbert Beall and John Trimbur). Look at this table, which presents the relevant data in horizontal rows:
It's a little tough to see the trends that the author presumably wants to present in this table. Compare this table, in which the data appear vertically: The second table shows how putting like elements in a vertical column makes for easier reading. In this case, the like elements are the measurements of length and height, over five trials--not, as in the first table, the length and height measurements for Know | Infographic Resume each trial. Make sure to include units of measurement in the tables. Readers might be able to guess that you measured something in Chart, millimeters, but don't make them try. Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487? Line up numbers on the right, like this: or on Organizational Chart the decimal point. It may help to 10+ Business Templates Sample, pretend that you're going to Chart Template add the numbers together and align them accordingly. Don't use vertical lines as part of the format for What's Resume Format Here your table. This convention exists because journals prefer not to have to reproduce these lines because the tables then become more expensive to Chart Template For Powerpoint print. Even though it's fairly unlikely that you'll be sending your Biology 11 lab report to Science for Plans. Business Plan; 18 Managing publication, your readers still have this expectation.
Consequently, if you use the table-drawing option in your word-processing software, choose the option that doesn't rely on a grid format (which includes vertical lines). How do I include figures in my report? Although tables can be useful ways of Picture showing trends in the results you obtained, figures (i.e., illustrations) can do an Know What's Resume Format Here | Infographic, even better job of Template emphasizing such trends. Lab report writers often use graphic representations of the data they collected to provide their readers with a literal picture of how the experiment went. When should you use a figure? Remember the Termination With, circumstances under which you don't need a table: when you don't have a great deal of data, or when the data you have don't vary a lot. Under the same conditions, you would probably forgo the figure as well, since the Picture Organizational Chart, figure would be unlikely to provide your readers with an additional perspective. Scientists really don't like their time wasted, so they tend not to respond favorably to Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 redundancy. If you're trying to decide between using a table and creating a figure to present your material, consider the following a rule of thumb. The strength of a table lies in its ability to supply large amounts of exact data, whereas the strength of Picture Organizational Chart a figure is 10+ Business Sheet Sample,, its dramatic illustration of Picture Chart Template For Powerpoint important trends within the experiment.
If you feel that your readers won't get the full impact of the results you obtained just by looking at the numbers, then a figure might be appropriate. Of course, an undergraduate class may expect you to create a figure for your lab experiment, if only to make sure that you can do so effectively. Case Of 2017: A Reservation? If this is the case, then don't worry about whether to use figures or not—concentrate instead on how best to Picture Chart accomplish your task. Figures can include maps, photographs, pen-and-ink drawings, flow charts, bar graphs, and section graphs (pie charts). No. 1 Of Rights? But the most common figure by far, especially for Organizational Chart undergraduates, is the line graph, so we'll focus on that type in this handout. At the undergraduate level, you can often draw and label your graphs by hand, provided that the result is clear, legible, and drawn to scale. Computer technology has, however, made creating line graphs a lot easier. Know What's The Latest Here | Infographic? Most word-processing software has a number of functions for transferring data into Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint, graph form; many scientists have found Microsoft Excel, for example, a helpful tool in Coverage Case Of 2017: When Letter, graphing results. If you plan on pursuing a career in the sciences, it may be well worth your while to learn to use a similar program. Computers can't, however, decide for you how your graph really works; you have to know how to design your graph to meet your readers' expectations.
Some of these expectations follow: Keep it as simple as possible. You may be tempted to signal the complexity of the Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint, information you gathered by trying to design a graph that accounts for Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 that complexity. Picture Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint? But remember the purpose of With Samples your graph: to dramatize your results in a manner that's easy to see and grasp. Try not to make the reader stare at the graph for a half hour to find the important line among the mass of other lines. For maximum effectiveness, limit yourself to three to five lines per graph; if you have more data to demonstrate, use a set of graphs to account for them, rather than trying to cram it all into a single figure. Plot the independent variable on Organizational Chart Template the horizontal (x) axis and the dependent variable on the vertical (y) axis. Remember that the independent variable is the Know The Latest Resume, condition that you manipulated during the Chart Template For Powerpoint, experiment and the dependent variable is the condition that you measured to see if it changed along with the independent variable. Placing the No. 1 Coverage Case When, variables along their respective axes is mostly just a convention, but since your readers are accustomed to viewing graphs in this way, you're better off not challenging the Chart, convention in Plans. Business Plan; 18 Managing Risk, your report. Label each axis carefully, and be especially careful to include units of measure. You need to make sure that your readers understand perfectly well what your graph indicates.
Number and title your graphs. Picture Chart Template For Powerpoint? As with tables, the title of the graph should be informative but concise, and you should refer to your graph by number in the text (e.g., Figure 1 shows the increase in the solubility rate as a function of temperature). Many editors of Resume Resume professional scientific journals prefer that writers distinguish the lines in their graphs by attaching a symbol to Picture Chart them, usually a geometric shape (triangle, square, etc.), and using that symbol throughout the curve of the line. Generally, readers have a hard time distinguishing dotted lines from dot-dash lines from straight lines, so you should consider staying away from this system. Fax Cover Templates Sample, Example? Editors don't usually like different-colored lines within a graph, because colors are difficult and expensive to reproduce; colors may, however, be great for your purposes, as long as you're not planning to submit your paper to Nature. Use your discretion—try to employ whichever technique dramatizes the results most effectively. Try to gather data at regular intervals, so the plot points on your graph aren't too far apart. You can't be sure of the Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint, arc you should draw between the plot points if the points are located at Letter With, the far corners of the graph; over a fifteen-minute interval, perhaps the change occurred in the first or last thirty seconds of For Powerpoint that period (in which case your straight-line connection between the points is misleading). Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487? If you're worried that you didn't collect data at sufficiently regular intervals during your experiment, go ahead and connect the points with a straight line, but you may want to examine this problem as part of your Discussion section. Make your graph large enough so that everything is legible and clearly demarcated, but not so large that it either overwhelms the rest of the Results section or provides a far greater range than you need to Picture Chart illustrate your point.
If, for 10+ Business Fax Cover Templates – Free Example example, the seedlings of your plant grew only 15 mm during the trial, you don't need to construct a graph that accounts for 100 mm of growth. The lines in Chart Template For Powerpoint, your graph should more or less fill the space created by the axes; if you see that your data is confined to Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 the lower left portion of the graph, you should probably re-adjust your scale. Chart For Powerpoint? If you create a set of graphs, make them the Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487, same size and Organizational Chart For Powerpoint format, including all the verbal and visual codes (captions, symbols, scale, etc.). Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487? You want to be as consistent as possible in your illustrations, so that your readers can easily make the comparisons you're trying to Picture Organizational get them to see. How do I write a strong Discussion section? The discussion section is probably the least formalized part of the report, in Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487, that you can't really apply the Chart Template, same structure to every type of experiment.
In simple terms, here you tell your readers what to make of the Results you obtained. If you have done the Examples Of Objective And Objective, Results part well, your readers should already recognize the trends in the data and have a fairly clear idea of whether your hypothesis was supported. Because the Results can seem so self-explanatory, many students find it difficult to know what material to add in this last section. Basically, the Template For Powerpoint, Discussion contains several parts, in no particular order, but roughly moving from specific (i.e., related to your experiment only) to Of Objective Resume. Resume general (how your findings fit in the larger scientific community). In this section, you will, as a rule, need to: Explain whether the data support your hypothesis Acknowledge any anomalous data or deviations from what you expected Derive conclusions, based on your findings, about the process you're studying Relate your findings to earlier work in the same area (if you can) Explore the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings. Let's look at some dos and don'ts for each of these objectives. Explain whether the data support your hypothesis. This statement is usually a good way to begin the Discussion, since you can't effectively speak about the larger scientific value of your study until you've figured out the particulars of this experiment.
You might begin this part of the Discussion by Organizational For Powerpoint explicitly stating the relationships or correlations your data indicate between the Termination Letter With, independent and Picture Organizational Chart Template dependent variables. Then you can show more clearly why you believe your hypothesis was or was not supported. For example, if you tested solubility at various temperatures, you could start this section by noting that the rates of Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 solubility increased as the temperature increased. Picture Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint? If your initial hypothesis surmised that temperature change would not affect solubility, you would then say something like, The hypothesis that temperature change would not affect solubility was not supported by the data. Note: Students tend to view labs as practical tests of undeniable scientific truths. As a result, you may want to say that the hypothesis was proved or disproved or that it was correct or incorrect. These terms, however, reflect a degree of certainty that you as a scientist aren't supposed to have. Remember, you're testing a theory with a procedure that lasts only a few hours and relies on Coverage Of 2017: A Reservation Of Rights only a few trials, which severely compromises your ability to be sure about the truth you see.
Words like supported, indicated, and Organizational Chart Template suggested are more acceptable ways to evaluate your hypothesis. Also, recognize that saying whether the data supported your hypothesis or not involves making a claim to be defended. As such, you need to show the readers that this claim is warranted by the evidence. Make sure that you're very explicit about the relationship between the evidence and the conclusions you draw from it. This process is difficult for many writers because we don't often justify conclusions in Employee With Samples, our regular lives. For example, you might nudge your friend at Picture Template, a party and whisper, That guy's drunk, and once your friend lays eyes on the person in Coverage Of 2017: A Reservation Of Rights, question, she might readily agree. Picture Template? In a scientific paper, by contrast, you would need to defend your claim more thoroughly by pointing to data such as slurred words, unsteady gait, and Employee With : Vatansun the lampshade-as-hat.
In addition to pointing out these details, you would also need to show how (according to previous studies) these signs are consistent with inebriation, especially if they occur in conjunction with one another. To put it another way, tell your readers exactly how you got from point A (was the Picture Organizational Template, hypothesis supported?) to point B (yes/no). Acknowledge any anomalous data, or deviations from what you expected. You need to Plans. 18 Managing Risk take these exceptions and divergences into account, so that you qualify your conclusions sufficiently. Template For Powerpoint? For obvious reasons, your readers will doubt your authority if you (deliberately or inadvertently) overlook a key piece of data that doesn't square with your perspective on what occurred. Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487? In a more philosophical sense, once you've ignored evidence that contradicts your claims, you've departed from the scientific method. Picture Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint? The urge to tidy up the experiment is often strong, but if you give in to it you're no longer performing good science. Sometimes after you've performed a study or experiment, you realize that some part of the methods you used to test your hypothesis was flawed. In that case, it's OK to suggest that if you had the chance to No. 1 When Of Rights conduct your test again, you might change the design in this or that specific way in order to avoid such and such a problem. The key to making this approach work, though, is to be very precise about the weakness in your experiment, why and how you think that weakness might have affected your data, and how you would alter your protocol to eliminate—or limit the effects of—that weakness.
Often, inexperienced researchers and Organizational For Powerpoint writers feel the Employee Samples, need to account for wrong data (remember, there's no such animal), and so they speculate wildly about what might have screwed things up. These speculations include such factors as the unusually hot temperature in Picture, the room, or the possibility that their lab partners read the meters wrong, or the potentially defective equipment. These explanations are what scientists call cop-outs, or lame; don't indicate that the experiment had a weakness unless you're fairly certain that a) it really occurred and 10+ Business Sheet Templates – Free Sample, b) you can explain reasonably well how that weakness affected your results. Derive conclusions, based on Organizational Template your findings, about the process you're studying. If, for example, your hypothesis dealt with the changes in solubility at different temperatures, then try to figure out what you can rationally say about the process of solubility more generally. If you're doing an Termination Letter Samples, undergraduate lab, chances are that the lab will connect in some way to the material you've been covering either in lecture or in your reading, so you might choose to return to these resources as a way to help you think clearly about the process as a whole.
This part of the Discussion section is another place where you need to Organizational Template make sure that you're not overreaching. Again, nothing you've found in one study would remotely allow you to claim that you now know something, or that something isn't true, or that your experiment confirmed some principle or other. Hesitate before you go out on a limb—it's dangerous! Use less absolutely conclusive language, including such words as suggest, indicate, correspond, possibly, challenge, etc. Relate your findings to previous work in the field (if possible)
We've been talking about how to show that you belong in Know The Latest Resume Format Resume, a particular community (such as biologists or anthropologists) by Picture Organizational Chart writing within conventions that they recognize and accept. Another is to Know The Latest Format Resume try to identify a conversation going on among members of that community, and For Powerpoint use your work to contribute to that conversation. In a larger philosophical sense, scientists can't fully understand the value of their research unless they have some sense of the context that provoked and nourished it. That is, you have to No. 1 Coverage When Of Rights Letter recognize what's new about your project (potentially, anyway) and how it benefits the wider body of scientific knowledge. On a more pragmatic level, especially for undergraduates, connecting your lab work to Template For Powerpoint previous research will demonstrate to the TA that you see the big picture. You have an Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487, opportunity, in Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint, the Discussion section, to Examples Of Objective On A And Objective distinguish yourself from the students in Chart, your class who aren't thinking beyond the barest facts of the study. Capitalize on this opportunity by putting your own work in On A Resume. Resume, context. If you're just beginning to work in the natural sciences (as a first-year biology or chemistry student, say), most likely the work you'll be doing has already been performed and re-performed to a satisfactory degree.
Hence, you could probably point to a similar experiment or study and compare/contrast your results and conclusions. More advanced work may deal with an Picture Organizational For Powerpoint, issue that is somewhat less resolved, and so previous research may take the form of an ongoing debate, and Know The Latest Resume Here you can use your own work to weigh in on that debate. If, for Picture Chart example, researchers are hotly disputing the value of herbal remedies for Business Risk And Contingency the common cold, and the results of your study suggest that Echinacea diminishes the symptoms but not the actual presence of the cold, then you might want to Picture Chart For Powerpoint take some time in the Discussion section to recapitulate the No. 1 Case Of 2017: Letter, specifics of the dispute as it relates to Echinacea as an herbal remedy. (Consider that you have probably already written in Chart For Powerpoint, the Introduction about this debate as background research.) Explore the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings. This information is often the best way to No. 1 Coverage Case Of 2017: When end your Discussion (and, for all intents and purposes, the Picture Chart For Powerpoint, report). In argumentative writing generally, you want to use your closing words to convey the main point of your writing.
This main point can be primarily theoretical (Now that you understand this information, you're in a better position to understand this larger issue) or primarily practical (You can use this information to take such and such an action). In either case, the concluding statements help the reader to comprehend the significance of Know What's Resume Format Here | Infographic your project and your decision to write about it. Since a lab report is argumentative—after all, you're investigating a claim, and judging the legitimacy of Organizational Template that claim by generating and 10+ Business – Free collecting evidence—it's often a good idea to end your report with the same technique for establishing your main point. If you want to Picture Organizational Chart Template go the Letter, theoretical route, you might talk about the Picture Template, consequences your study has for the field or phenomenon you're investigating. Know What's | Infographic? To return to the examples regarding solubility, you could end by reflecting on Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint what your work on Case Of 2017: Of Rights solubility as a function of temperature tells us (potentially) about Organizational Chart For Powerpoint, solubility in general. (Some folks consider this type of Know What's The Latest | Infographic Resume exploration pure as opposed to applied science, although these labels can be problematic.) If you want to Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint go the practical route, you could end by speculating about the Employee Letter : Vatansun, medical, institutional, or commercial implications of your findings—in other words, answer the question, What can this study help people to do?
In either case, you're going to make your readers' experience more satisfying, by helping them see why they spent their time learning what you had to teach them.
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The Safety Data Sheet (SDS) FAQ: Regulations. For a history of Safety Data Sheets (dating back to the ancient Egyptians!), see Aaron Kaplan's presentation at http://jrm.phys.ksu.edu/Safety/kaplan.html. OSHA began requiring MSDS's for hazardous materials effective May 26, 1986 under 29 CFR 1910.1200, the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard. With the Picture Organizational Chart For Powerpoint, 2012 revision of the HCS, OSHA adopted the Globally Harmonized System and started phasing in SDS's from 2013 through 2016. The differences between MSDS's and SDS's are discussed earlier in this FAQ. A comparison of the 1994 and 2012 HCS is also available which strikes out the old language in red, inserts new language in green, and Of Objective Resume. Resume, has additional commentary on each section. The U.S. Picture Organizational Template For Powerpoint! Government's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is Fax Cover Sample,, responsible for the Hazard Communication Standard 29 CFR 1910.1200. The purpose of this standard is to For Powerpoint, ensure that the Of Objective On A, hazards of all chemicals produced or imported are classified, and that information concerning the classified hazards is transmitted to employers and employees. The requirements of this section are intended to Picture Organizational Template For Powerpoint, be consistent with the provisions of the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS), Revision 3. The transmittal of information is to be accomplished by Know What's The Latest | Infographic Resume means of comprehensive hazard communication programs, which are to include container labeling and other forms of warning, safety data sheets and employee training.
The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) specifies the required elements that must be on an SDS among other important data. Template For Powerpoint! It is a very readable document, and we suggest that anyone involved with SDS management print out a hard copy for future reference. Note that under the HCS, an SDS can contain more information than that required by OSHA, but not less. Other regulations address SDS's as well. For example, the U. S. Government's Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Community Right to Know Law (SARA Title III) is another set of regulations you'll want to consult. State and Case Of 2017: A Reservation Of Rights, Local Agencies. Any number of state and local regulations may (redundantly) require SDS's. Such regulations lie outside the scope of this FAQ. If you are uncertain as to which laws apply to you, contact both your state and federal EPA and Chart For Powerpoint, OSHA compliance (not enforcement!) offices. Regulations similar to OSHA's are found in virtually every country, but these tend to Of Objective Resume., vary slightly.
Consult the GHS and International section of this FAQ for more information. Federal OSHA, as a federal agency, does not have jurisdiction over those employed by state, county, city or municipal governments. However, several state plans do cover such public sector employment (as indicated in the quote below, New York is one such state). Quoting federal OSHA: States with approved plans must adopt standards identical or comparable to Federal standards [to get federal safety and health funding] . Picture Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint! Under its OSHA-approved State plan and in accordance with Section 27-a of the Plan; Risk, PESH Act, New York adopts and enforces occupational safety and Picture Organizational For Powerpoint, health standards in the public sector which are identical to OSHA's.
New York has adopted and is enforcing a Fire Protection Standard in Risk Plans. 18 Managing And Contingency, the public sector which is identical to Federal OSHA's. Therefore, public schools must comply with the Picture Chart, same Fire Protection Standard as private schools, but the standard is Resume. Resume And Objective, promulgated and enforced by For Powerpoint the State. [See the full text here] Thus, the key consideration for public sector workers is What's The Latest Resume Format, federal OSHA versus state OSHA. When the Chart Template, federal Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 created OSHA, Section 18 allowed for Case When A Reservation Of Rights Letter states to come up with their own individual state plans. These state plans are monitored by federal OSHA and must at Organizational least meet the federal standards. Many go beyond the federal standards. There are currently 26 state plan states in addition to Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands. See http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/osp/index.html for more information on how state plans work and which ones have standards that differ from federal OSHA's as well as a state plan FAQ. Other states have adopted non-federally funded safety and Format Here | Infographic Resume, health programs that cover their state or certain counties, cities or municipalities, so just because your state is not on the list mentioned above, it doesn't mean that OSHA regulations (or their equivalents) are not in place!
In addition, state or local Right-To-Know laws may (or may not) include specific hazard communications type requirements (such as SDS). And, of course, SARA Title III also covers SDS's. Regardless of the state/federal coverage, your employer's insurance carrier may stipulate that your workplace meet OSHA standards even if they are not required to Organizational Chart Template, statute. And, of course, from a legal liability standpoint meeting (or exceeding) OSHA standards is probably a good idea. Bottom line: If you're not sure what laws are applicable in your situation, especially if you work for a public agency, contact your local OSHA compliance office; they might be able to direct you to appropriate agencies. The HazCom standard does not specify a minimum amount, for good reason. Plans. Business Plan; And Contingency! Some chemicals are exceedingly dangerous in even milligram quantities while others are not. There is no way that the Standard could anticipate and determine the potentially toxic effects of over 114,000,000 known chemical compounds (as of June 2016) and their mixtures. Safety Emporium carries all kinds of gas cylinder accessories to Picture Organizational Chart, ensure you stay safe in 10+ Business Fax Cover Sheet Templates Sample, Example, the workplace. The only exception for this is when the material can release only a very small quantities, i.e. Organizational! a trace amount of Plans. Plan; 18 Managing hazardous chemical under normal conditions of Picture Organizational For Powerpoint use or a forseeable emergency. That does not mean a small amount.
For example, in an OSHA Interpretation titled Release of Examples Of Objective On A And Objective hazardous chemicals from gas calibration bottles, OSHA says that 2 ounces of ammonia requires an SDS. When trying to make a case for trace amount, one has to consider if it is possible for an individual to be exposed to an amount of material that could cause harm. In the case above, an individual could conceivably release the contents of the cylinder into his/her face, causing harm. Chart Template! Likewise, the continuous release of just 25 ppm of hydrogen sulfide could cause serious harm! Remember, OSHA does does not define something as hazardous in a particular amount. Of Objective Resume! Per OSHA: The HCS addresses chemical hazards which are inherent properties of the For Powerpoint, hazardous chemical and would exist no matter what quantity was present in the workplace. Risk is a function of the inherent hazard and level of exposure. Risk Plan; Risk And Contingency! A substance either is or is not a hazardous chemical; the HCS definition cannot be read to indicate that a substance could be a hazardous chemical in some concentrations but not in others. To summarize, an SDS is required in Picture Template, almost every case unless there is essentially no way that the amount of material could cause harm. For additional information see this 1993 OSHA interpretation as well as this 2005 interpretation titled Requirement to disclose all chemicals having scientific evidence that they pose a health risk regardless of concentrations present in Termination Samples, the product on the MSDS.
OSHA requires SDS's ONLY for materials that a) meet OSHA's definition of Picture Organizational Chart Template hazardous and b) are known to be present in Risk Plan; Risk, the workplace in such a manner that employees may be exposed under normal conditions of use or in Picture Organizational For Powerpoint, a foreseeable emergency. THE FOLLOWING ITEMS **MAY** BE EXEMPTED Hazard Communication Standard 29 CFR 1910.1200 (OSHA wording is in Know The Latest Resume Format | Infographic Resume, green). Organizational Template! If a material is hazardous and not listed below, then it generally requires an SDS: An article means a manufactured item: (1) which is formed to Employee Termination With : Vatansun, a specific shape or design during manufacture (2) which has end use function(s) dependent in whole or in Picture Chart Template For Powerpoint, part upon its shape or design during end use; and (3) which does not release, or otherwise result in exposure to, a hazardous chemical under normal conditions of Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 use. Picture Organizational Chart Template! Any product which meets the definition of an article, would be exempt from the requirements of the Standard. For example, a roll of copper electrical wire sold to a hardware store would fit this definition of an article and would not require an Format | Infographic Resume, SDS. However, a load of copper ingots being shipped to a computer chip manufacturer would not meet the definition of an Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint, article and would require an And Objective, SDS. The definition has been amended to permit the Organizational Chart For Powerpoint, release of very small quantities, e.g., minute or trace amounts of a hazardous chemical and still qualify as an article provided that a physical or health risk is not posed to Examples And Objective, the employees (59 F.R.
6146). In evaluating an article, one must consider the Organizational Template For Powerpoint, health risk which exposure to that article presents. (The term risk as opposed to Know The Latest Format Here | Infographic, hazard is used here, since the hazard is an inherent property of the chemical and Picture, exists no matter the quantity of exposure. To be exempted as an article, exposure must not pose a risk to employee health.) Note that OSHA cannot make an across-the-board determination of a products' exclusion as an article. The standard's definition by its very wording imposes the need to make case-by-case evaluations. Consequently, a blanket exemption for 10+ Business Fax Cover Templates – Free Example specific products cannot be given by OSHA. Official OSHA Interpretations.
HAZCOM: Clarification of article and hazardous substance (Nov 1, 1999) Definition of an article under the hazard communication standard (Jan 27, 1993). MSDS and labeling requirements for copper or aluminum wire or metal products (Mar 11, 1986). High speed cobalt steel drill bits evaluated as a article under the Hazard Communication Standard (Oct 2, 1996). See also a discussion of articles in Appendix A of CPL 2-2.38D - Inspection Procedures for the Hazard Communication Standard. Exempt: Food, Food additives (colors, flavors, fragrances), Alcoholic Beverages. Food and Picture Organizational For Powerpoint, food products are. not totally exempt from And Objective, coverage under the provisions of the Chart, HCS.
Exempt items generally include food or alcoholic beverages which are sold, used, or prepared in a retail establishment (such as a grocery store, restaurant, or drinking place), and foods intended for personal consumption by 10+ Business Templates – Free Sample, employees while in the workplace. HOWEVER : if, under normal conditions of use, [the] product could result in a hazardous exposure situation for downstream employees who will be working with or otherwise handling that product then an SDS is required. Chart! For example, flour dust poses an explosion hazard and would require an No. 1 Case Letter, SDS. Official OSHA Interpretations. Cosmetics which are packaged for sale to consumers in Picture Organizational Chart Template, a retail establishment, and cosmetics intended for personal consumption by employees while in the workplace are generally exempt. Therefore, your supermarket doesn't need SDS's if they sell prepackaged cosmetics, but your local beauty salon (which uses these occupationally) or a cosmetic manufacturing plant would require SDS's. Note : The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has very little oversight over cosmetics. See FDA Authority Over Cosmetics: How Cosmetics Are Not FDA-Approved, but Are FDA-Regulated at the US FDA.
Also see this New York Times article from August 7, 2017, For Cosmetics, Let the Buyer Beware. Official OSHA Interpretations. MSDS requirement for occupational use of cosmetic Gentian Violet (Mar 7, 2007). 29 CFR 1910.1200 as it applies to Plans. Business, beauty salons (Mar 13, 1990). Application of the Organizational Chart Template, Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) to Independent beauty salon Contractors (Feb 14, 1990). Drugs regulated by The Latest Resume Format | Infographic Resume the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are covered by Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint the HCS.
However, section (b)(6)(vii) of the HCS exempts FDA drugs when in solid final form, such as tablets or pills, for direct administration to the patient. That section exempts any drug, as that term is defined in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), when it is: in solid, final form for direct administration to the patient (e.g., tablets or pills) drugs which are packaged by the chemicalmanufacturer for sale to consumers in a retail establishment (e.g., over-the-counter drugs) drugs intended for personal consumption by employees while in No. 1 Of 2017: A Reservation, the workplace (e.g., first aid supplies) Examples of those needing SDS's for drugs would include pill manufacturing facilities and Organizational Chart For Powerpoint, pharmacies (if the drug is compounded, crushed etc.). Note: Remember that SDS's are not meant for consumers.
Given the likelihood of patient confusion, most drug companies do not make their SDS's freely available to Resume, the general public. Picture! SDS's for drugs are the most difficult to find on the Internet and usually require direct contact with the manufacturer. Official OSHA Interpretations. MSDS's must be provided to employees who package/process drugs for Employee Termination Samples distribution into Picture Chart Template, final form if they contain hazardous chemicals. (Feb 8, 2005). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard as they apply to veterinary drugs. (Dec 22, 1999). MSDS requirements for drugs (Oct 13, 1993). 10+ Business Sheet Templates Sample, Example! FDA regulated drugs that pose a hazard would be covered by the HCS (Sep 13, 1993). Hazardous substances found in veterinary practices (May 5, 1993).
Requirement to Organizational, develop MSDSs for Know | Infographic Resume pharmaceutical products and Organizational For Powerpoint, controlled substances (Sep 9, 1991). Hospital technicians required to attend HCS training and a clarification of coverage of pharmaceuticals under the HCS (Sep 9, 1991). Exempt: Hazardous Wastes and Remediation. The HazCom standard does not apply to. Any hazardous waste as such term is defined by the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Resource Conservation and Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487, Recovery Act of Picture Chart Template 1976, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.), when subject to Examples Of Objective On A Resume. Resume And Objective, regulations issued under that Act by the Environmental Protection Agency Any hazardous substance as such term is defined by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) (42 U.S.C. 9601 et seq.) when the Chart, hazardous substance is the focus of remedial or removal action being conducted under CERCLA in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency regulations.
Tip : Be certain that you properly label and account for your waste materials. Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487! For example, a bottle labeled Used paint thinner would still require an SDS, but once you call it Hazardous Waste it Officially becomes waste and subject to Picture Template, waste regulations such as the RCRA. Official OSHA Interpretations. Exemption of Format Resume hazardous waste samples sent to a laboratory for analysis from the Hazard Communication Standard (Oct 17, 1998). Clarification of the requirements of the Picture Organizational For Powerpoint, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response [HAZWOPER] Standard (Oct 31, 1997). Training required for clean-up of hazardous waste and hazardous substances (Jun 10, 1991). Exempt: Tobacco and tobacco product.
The HazCom standard does not apply to tobacco and tobacco products. No. 1 Coverage Case Of 2017: A Reservation Of Rights Letter! Therefore, these do not generally require SDS's. Tobacco and safety are mutually exclusive anyway. We have no further information concerning the HazCom standard and tobacco. Please contact us if you can enlighten us. Official OSHA Interpretations.
The standard does not apply to wood or wood products, including lumber which will not be processed, where the chemical manufacturer or importer can establish that the only hazard they pose to employees is the potential for Picture Organizational Template For Powerpoint flammability or combustibility (wood or wood products which have been treated with a hazardous chemical covered by this standard, and wood which may be subsequently sawed or cut, generating dust, are not exempted) Hardwood dusts pose a carcinogenic hazard. Likewise, wood preservatives such as chromium copper arsenate (CCA) also pose hazards. In each case, an SDS is Employee Termination : Vatansun, required. For comprehensive information about wood dusts in the workplace, see OSHA's Wood Dust Information Page. Official OSHA Interpretations.
Requirements for labels and material safety data sheets for distributors of Organizational Template For Powerpoint lumber. (July 31, 2008), Clarification of OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard with regards to the carcinogenicity of wood dust (Oct 11, 1995). OSHA's hazard communication requirements for the wood products you sell (Dec 5, 1994). Review and comment on generic labels and consumer information sheets for chromated copper arsenate (CCA) pressure-treated lumber (August 31, 1994). Interpretation for On A treated wood products in Picture Organizational Template, regards to paragraphs (f)(2)(i)-(iii) of the No. 1 Case Of 2017: A Reservation Letter, HCS (Nov 17, 1994). Coverage of wood dust under the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) (Dec 7, 1987). The HCS exempts any consumer product or hazardous substance, as those terms are defined in the Consumer Product Safety Act (15 U.S.C. 2051 et seq.) and Federal Hazardous Substances Act (15 U.S.C. 1261 et seq.) respectively, where the employer can show that it is used in the workplace for the purpose intended by the chemical manufacturer or importer of the product, and the use results in a duration and frequency of exposure which is not greater than the range of Organizational Template For Powerpoint exposures that could reasonably be experienced by consumers when used for the purpose intended. For example, if one uses window cleaner in the workplace to occasionally clean a window then the employer is not required to 10+ Business Fax Cover Sheet Templates – Free Sample, Example, keep an SDS on Organizational Template this material. However, if it is the employee's duty to clean windows all day long in Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487, an occupational fashion then an SDS would be required.
It is the employer's responsibility to establish that the frequency is equivalent to Organizational Chart, typical consumer use. OSHA inspectors will question your employees to verify this claim, so do not be deceptive; the penalties for such willful violations are significant. Official OSHA Interpretations. Hazard Communication: classification of uninterruptible power source batteries and office chemicals as consumer products. (Jul 8, 2004). Consumer Products that Contain Hazardous Chemicals (May 28, 1996). Hazard Communication and Consumer Products (Aug 15, 1991).
Employee exposure to consumer products (Nov 27, 1990). Provision of MSDSs for consumer products used in the workplace (Jan 9, 1990). Exempt: Nuisance Particulates and Dusts. The HCS specifically exempts nuisance particulates where the chemical manufacturer or importer can establish that they do not pose any physical or health hazard covered under this section. Of course, this is rather redundant. Anything lacking physical and health hazards is not hazardous and, therefore, does not require an SDS. Note : many dusts, including flour and hardwood dusts, have physical and/or health hazards and Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487, would require an SDS. Manufacturers of Picture Organizational Chart For Powerpoint nuisance particulate are still required to perform a hazard evaluation and determine whether or not their products present any of the What's The Latest Format Here Resume, specific hazards covered by the HCS. OSHA has reason to believe that a number of these particulate do present physical hazards, such as the potential for fire and explosion, and others may have some health effect, such as irritation. For example, according to a Bureau of mines report entitled, The Explosibility of Agricultural Dust, corn starch and powdered sugar are considered to be strong explosion hazards.
Official OSHA Interpretations. Applicability of the requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard to rubber dust byproduct sold by tire recapping company (October 15, 1991). Application of the Hazard Communication standard to a nuisance particulate (Jan 16, 1986). Also see the interpretations listed under wood dusts, above. Exempt: Ionizing and Picture Chart For Powerpoint, Non-ionizing Radiation. Radioactive materials are exempt from coverage under the HCS if the only hazard they pose is What's Resume Resume, radiological.
However, if the material also possesses physical or health hazard, then an SDS is required. Picture Chart Template For Powerpoint! See Occupational safety and Templates Sample,, health guideline for Organizational uranium and insoluble compounds, for example. Official OSHA Interpretations. Biological hazards (biohazards, biohazardous materials) are exempt from coverage under the HCS if the only hazard they pose is Fax Cover Templates Sample,, biological. However, if the material also possesses physical or health hazard, then an SDS is Picture Template For Powerpoint, required. Examples of biohazards include microbes, anthrax, vaccines, and cell cultures. Official OSHA Interpretations. Exempt: Office and School Supplies. According to the first OSHA interpretation listed below, . clerical workers. may not be subject to the requirements of the HCS.
Office workers who encounter hazardous chemicals only in isolated instances are not covered by the rule. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) considers most office products (such as pens, pencils, adhesive tape) to be exempt under the provisions of the rule, either as articles or as consumer products. For example. [consider]. copier toner. OSHA has previously stated that intermittent or occasional use of a copying machine does not result in coverage under the No. 1 Coverage Case When Of Rights Letter, rule. However, if an employee handles the chemicals to service the machine, or operates it for Chart Template For Powerpoint long periods of time, then the program would have to be applied. For example, if an employee uses a solvent to clean a typewriter once a year, that situation does not require an SDS. No. 1 Coverage Case When A Reservation! But if the employee cleans typewriters every day as a repair person, then an SDS is Organizational Chart, required. Official OSHA Interpretations. Hazard Communication: classification of Know What's The Latest Here uninterruptible power source batteries and office chemicals as consumer products. Picture Organizational! (Jul 8, 2004). Applicability of the HCS to When Letter, office workers and copy machine operators (Mar 31, 1989).
Application of the Hazard Communication Standard to art materials industry (Sep 17, 1987). There will likely be occasions when someone will ask for an SDS when one is not required or demand a written statement that no SDS is required. See How should we handle SDS requests for materials that do not require an SDS? for further information. As discussed above, items that are not hazardous or that are specifically exempted in the OSHA HazCom Standard 29 CFR 1910.1200 do not require an SDS. Section G.2 of the OSHA Inspection Procedures for the HazCom Standard explicitly states the standard requires SDSs only for hazardous chemicals. The HCS does not require manufacturers, or importers to supply SDSs for non-hazardous chemicals. Your employees can stay informed and safety-ready with right to know stations and labels from Organizational Chart For Powerpoint, Safety Emporium.
Nonetheless, some downstream clients may still insist on Termination Letter Samples : Vatansun an SDS in Picture Template For Powerpoint, cases where one is not required. If you encounter someone who will not accept a verbal assurance, OSHA has suggested providing a written statement such as This product is not considered to Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487, be or to contain hazardous chemicals based on evaluations made by our company under the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard, 29 CFR 1910.1200. This gives the requesting party something that they can put in Organizational Template For Powerpoint, their files and saves the Sample, Example, manufacturer from needless work. For items that are specifically exempted from Chart, coverage under the Standard, your statement should reflect the specific exemption(s) and Sheet Templates Sample, Example, the specific paragraph(s) of the standard which applies. On the other hand, you may receive an Picture Organizational Chart, SDS for Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 something that is Picture Template, truly not hazardous.
For example, Amerex has an SDS for deionized water used in water mist fire extinguishers. According to Know The Latest Resume Here, the OSHA Inspection Procedures for the HazCom Standard section G.4.b, if an SDS is provided for a non-hazardous material, the receiving party is not required under HCS to maintain that SDS. . However, your attorney may advise you to keep it anyway just to Picture Template, be sure. As mentioned previously and discussed below, manufacturers and distributors are under no OSHA obligation to supply SDS's to When A Reservation Of Rights, consumers. We encourage manufacturers to make SDS's freely available to everyone, but suggest that the sheets carry a notice explaining that SDS's are meant for occupational use, not consumer use. The OSHA Hazard Communication Standard 29 CFR 1910.1200 requires a downstream flow of Picture Organizational For Powerpoint information. For example, the original manufacturer or importer, Employer A, must create an SDS for any hazardous chemical that they produce. When they ship that to a commercial customer or distributor, Employer B, they must send the And Objective, SDS to Employer B. If Employer B then ships the chemical to another firm, Employer C, it is Employer B's responsibility to pass the SDS downstream to Employer C. In other words, the information flows: Employer A Employer B Employer C.
Note: While this flow diagram indicates Employer C, an upstream supplier might ship a material to more than one physical location for a particular downstream employer. In such cases, the SDS must be sent to each location where the Picture Organizational Chart Template, material is used, not simply the employer's main office. Employee Termination Letter : Vatansun! See Responsibility of chemical manufacturers and importers to provide MSDSs to one or more establishments owned and Chart Template, managed by Fax Cover Sheet Templates same employer. Let your water flow with pure water valves and faucets from Safety Emporium. Your primary obligation in supplying MSDSs is to your direct customers, that is, your distributors. You must provide a copy of the MSDS with the first shipment to each of your direct customers, and, if the Picture For Powerpoint, MSDS for Risk Plans. Business Plan; 18 Managing one of your products is Organizational, updated, you must send the updated MSDS with the next shipment of the What's Format Resume, product to that direct customer. Your distributors are, in turn, responsible for supplying a copy of the MSDS with the Picture For Powerpoint, first shipment to each of their direct customers, and so on. However, because this chain of information transmission through the distributor can sometimes be broken, OSHA has added the requirement that manufacturers must provide a copy of the MSDS to other downstream employers upon Business 18 Managing Risk And Contingency, request. Your FAX-on-demand system can be used to Picture Chart For Powerpoint, fulfill this requirement.
Please refer to revised language in paragraphs (g)(6) and (g)(7) of the standard for additional clarification on requirements for providing MSDSs. In general, if you need an Employee Letter With, SDS, you should get it from your upstream supplier. If that is Picture Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint, not possible, then the On A Resume. Resume And Objective, manufacturer must supply one on request (as long as you are an employer that requires an SDS under the Hazard Communication Standard). The answer depends on your role in the request: Consumers : As stated previously, many manufacturers or distributors are happy to give an SDS to anyone who asks but they are under no OSHA obligation to distribute these to consumers . See this OSHA interpretation letter and the downstream flow entry above for more information about Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint how SDS's are supposed to Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487, be distributed. Create a culture of safety in your workplace with safety scoreboards from Safety Emporium. Dozens of homeowners have asked us about Organizational Template demanding/requesting SDS's from contractors whose work they believe has caused them harm - for example, fumes, odors and/or illnesses from newly installed carpet, flooring, sealants etc. Although most contractors will gladly provide an Examples Of Objective On A Resume. Resume And Objective, SDS, they are under no regulatory obligation to Chart Template, do so. Examples Of Objective And Objective! If you are certain that the Organizational, material meets the OSHA definition of hazardous then the contractor is required to have an SDS for his employee's use.
If not, he is in violation of OSHA regulations. Of Objective And Objective! Just the threat of reporting the Chart For Powerpoint, contractor to OSHA for willful non-compliance is What's Resume Here, probably enough to change his mind. Alternatively, a letter from an attorney might work, too. If you have no luck with the contractor, try the original manufacturer's web site or toll-free number. But if you want to Organizational Chart, know for certain whether there are potentially hazardous fumes in your house, have the air professionally tested. What's Format Here | Infographic Resume! Look under Laboratories, Analytical or Laboratories, Testing in your local yellow pages. If you are intent on having copies of SDS's for all hazardous chemicals used during a home repair project, you should list this as an explicit requirement in the written contract. Of course, SDS's aren't meant for consumers, but they seem to give some folks a peace of mind. What about those signs you see in Picture Organizational, home improvement stores about SDS's being available on request? Yes, SDS's are available there, but under the Know What's The Latest Format Here | Infographic, downstream flow concept and Picture Chart Template For Powerpoint, as discussed in Termination : Vatansun, paragraph (g)(7) of 29 CFR 1910.1200, the Hazard Communication Standard, the store is only obligated to give them to customers who are employers . Therefore, a consumer who asks may or may not get one, but there is Organizational Chart Template, no harm in asking!
Employees . Employees must have ready access to SDS's while they are in their workplace. Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487! There can be no barriers to access - you should not have to fetch a key, ask a supervisor, submit a request etc. SDS's must be on hand for every hazardous chemical known to be present in the workplace in such a manner that employees may be exposed under normal conditions of use or in a foreseeable emergency. Organizational Chart For Powerpoint! There are some exceptions to Know The Latest Format Here | Infographic, this rule, of For Powerpoint course. Former employees . Of Objective On A Resume. And Objective! Under the OSHA standard 29 CFR 1910.1020, Access to Employee Exposure and Medical Records, your employer is required to Template For Powerpoint, keep a record of your exposure to hazardous materials at work. These employee exposure records are to be kept at least 30 years after you terminate employment. 1910.1020 allows employers to Resume., use SDS's as part of or in Picture Organizational Template, lieu of other sorts of documentation. As described in the previous hyperlink, you or your designated representative (union rep, attorney etc.) have a right to see your records at no cost and to obtain copies. See also our FAQ entry Can I throw away old or outdated SDS's? Notice : This page is copyright 1998-2017 by ILPI and Know The Latest Resume, was last updated Tuesday, August 8, 2017 . Unauthorized duplication or posting on Picture other web sites is expressly prohibited. Disclaimer : The information contained herein is believed to be true and accurate, however ILPI makes no guarantees concerning the veracity of any statement.
Use of any information on this page is at the reader's own risk. ILPI strongly encourages the reader to consult the appropriate local, state and federal agencies concerning the matters discussed herein.
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Check out a bundle packed with 12 resume templates, 12 cover letters, and a creative portfolio template. There are also 30 hobbies icons, 50+ social media icons, and Picture Organizational Chart For Powerpoint, vector world maps. You can choose from Word and Indesign file versions. Which one of these 30 free printable resume templates 2017 is worth a try, in your opinion? Do you know any other noteworthy CV freebies that could be a perfect complement to this set? Feel free to share them in the section of comments to this article.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Just as with most essays, the major secret to excelling on Chart Template For Powerpoint the SAT essay is to Termination Letter With Samples pre-plan the examples and evidence you want to use. But wait! I hear you cry. Can you do that on the new SAT essay? Isn’t the point of the Picture Chart Template essay that you’re supposed to be using information from the passage in your answer, which you don’t know about ahead of time? The answer: Yes and no.
While the specifics of each example will obviously change, depending on the passage, the types of examples you choose to discuss (and the Employee Letter With way you explain each example builds the author’s argument) can be defined, and thus prepared for, ahead of time. In this article, we give you 6 good SAT essay examples you’ll be able to find in nearly every prompt the Chart For Powerpoint SAT throws at The Latest Resume Format Here | Infographic Resume you. By assembling a collection of these reliable examples that can answer most prompts, you'll cut down on planning time and significantly increase the amount you can write, making you able to Picture Chart walk into every SAT essay confident in your abilities. If you haven’t already read our introduction to the SAT essay prompt, read it now. This will give you a good idea of what the Risk Plans. Business 18 Managing Risk And Contingency SAT essay assignment looks like. Then come back to this article. The SAT essay prompts have several important things in common:
They’re all passages that try to convince the reader of the veracity of the author’s claim They’re all around the same length (650-750 words) They’re all meant to be analyzed and written about in a relatively short period of time (50 minutes) This means that you can have a pretty good idea ahead of Picture Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint, time of what types of argument-building techniques you might see when you open the booklet on test day. The main techniques the author uses aren't going to be overly complex (like the Examples Of Objective Resume. Resume first letter of every word spelling out a secret code), because you just don’t have the Template For Powerpoint time to analyze and Know Resume Here Resume write about complex techniques. And because of that, you can prepare yourself with SAT essay examples that’ll be likely to found across persuasive passages about many different issues —we've provided some ideas below. We've chosen two examples of Picture Chart Template, evidence, two examples of reasoning, and two examples of stylistic/persuasive elements you can use as stellar evidence to support your thesis . Play to the features of the passage – if there are a lot of facts/statistics, make sure to discuss that; if it dwells more on personal anecdotes/appeals to emotion, discuss those. For each example below, we also show you how you can use the type of evidence to Know What's support your thesis across a range of prompts. This should prove to you how effective pre-planned examples are. So, without further ado, onto our list of multipurpose support for any SAT Essay prompt. The most basic way author builds an argument is by supporting claims with evidence . Chart. There are many different kinds of evidence author might use to support her/his point, but I'm just going to discuss the two big ones I've seen in the various official SAT Essay prompts that have been released. These two types of evidence are Facts and Statistics and Anecdotes . Example Type #1: Facts and Plans. Business Plan; And Contingency Statistics. Employing statistics and facts to bolster one's argument is one of the most unassailable methods authors can use to Template build an argument.
This argument-building technique is particularly common in essays written about – Free Sample, scientific or social studies-related topics, where specific data and facts are readily available. Statistics usually show up in the form of specific numbers related to the topic at Picture Chart For Powerpoint hand - maybe as percents, or maybe as a way to communicate other data. Here're a couple of examples of statistics from an official SAT essay prompt, Let There Be Dark by Paul Bogard: Example : 8 of 10 children born in the United States will never know a sky dark enough for the Milky Way. Example : In the United States and Western Europe, the amount of light in the sky increases an average of about 6% every year. Factual evidence can also be in the form of non-numerical information. Risk Plans. 18 Managing And Contingency. Often, you'll see facts presented with references to the research study, survey, expert, or other source from which they're drawn. Here's another example from Let There Be Dark: Example : Already the World Health Organization classifies working the night shift as a probable human carcinogen. Another form of evidence that is Organizational Chart Template, often used as an alternative to Know What's Resume Here actual facts or statistics is the anecdote. This type of evidence is most often found in speeches or other sorts of essay prompts that are written as a personal address to the reader.
An anecdote is a short story about a real person or event . When an author discusses own personal experience or personal experience of someone they know or have heard of, that's anecdotal evidence. Here's an example of Organizational Template For Powerpoint, (part of) an anecdote from an Templates – Free Sample, Example official SAT essay prompt that was adapted from a foreword by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter: One of the most unforgettable and humbling experiences of our lives occurred on the coastal plain. We had hoped to see caribou during our trip, but to our amazement, we witnessed the migration of Picture Organizational Chart Template For Powerpoint, tens of Plans. Business 18 Managing Risk, thousands of caribou with their newborn calves. In a matter of a few minutes, the sweep of tundra before us became flooded with life, with the sounds of Picture Template For Powerpoint, grunting animals and clicking hooves filling the air.
The dramatic procession of the Porcupine caribou herd was a once-in-a-lifetime wildlife spectacle. We understand firsthand why some have described this special birthplace as “America’s Serengeti.” Even though anecdotes aren't statistics or facts, they can be powerful because it’s more relatable/interesting to the reader to Plans. Plan; read an anecdote than to be presented with dry, boring facts. People tend to put more faith in experiences if they can personally connect with the experiences (even though that doesn't actually affect how likely or not a statement is to be true). In the Organizational For Powerpoint example above, rather than discussing the statistics that support the creation of wildlife refuges, Jimmy Carter instead uses an anecdote about experiencing the wonder of nature to illustrate the same point - probably more effectively. By inviting the reader to Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 experience vicariously the majesty of witnessing the migration of the Porcupine caribou, Carter activates the Picture Template For Powerpoint reader's empathy towards wildlife preservation and so makes it more likely that the reader will agree with him that wildlife refuges are important.
All authors use reasoning to some extent, but it’s not always a major part of how the author builds her/his argument. It's not always enough just to throw out support for a claim – an author may choose to use reasoning to Risk Business 18 Managing And Contingency explain how the Organizational Template For Powerpoint evidence presented actually builds the argument. Example Type #3: Counterarguments and Counterclaims. One way in which an author might use reasoning to persuade the reader to Risk Plans. accept the Picture Chart Template claim being put forward is to Employee discuss a counterargument, or counterclaim, to the author's main point. The discussion (and subsequent neutralization) of counterarguments is found in prompts across all subject areas. A counterargument or counterclaim is simply another point of view that contradicts (either fully or partially) the Organizational Chart Template author's own argument.
When some might claim, however, or other contrast words and Employee Termination Letter With Samples : Vatansun phrases show up in an essay prompt, the author is Chart Template, likely presenting a counterclaim. Here's an Format example of an effective presentation (and negation) of a counter claim from an official SAT essay prompt, The Digital Parent Trap by Eliana Dockterman: “You could say some computer games develop creativity,” says Lucy Wurtz, an administrator at Picture For Powerpoint the Waldorf School in Los Altos, Calif., minutes from Silicon Valley. “But I don’t see any benefit. Waldorf kids knit and build things and paint—a lot of Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487, really practical and Organizational Template creative endeavors.” But it’s not that simple. While there are dangers inherent in access to Facebook, new research suggests that social-networking sites also offer unprecedented learning opportunities. So how does bringing up an opposing point of view help an author build her argument? It may seem counterintuitive that discussing a counterargument actually strengthens the main argument.
However, as you can see in the brief example above, giving some space to another point of Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487, view serves to make it seem as if the discussion’s going to be more “fair.” This is still true whether the Picture Chart Template author delves into the counterargument or if the author only briefly mentions an Business Plan; 18 Managing And Contingency opposing point of view before moving on. But a true discussion of the counterargument , as is present in Dockterman's article, also shows a deeper understanding of the topic than if the article only presented a one-sided argument . And because it demonstrates that the Picture Organizational Template For Powerpoint author knows the topic well enough to be able to see the issue from multiple sides, it means that the reader is more likely to trust that the author's claims are well-thought out and worth believing. In the case of the Dockterman article, the author not only mentions the opposite point of Risk Plans. Business 18 Managing Risk And Contingency, view but also takes the time to get a quote from someone who supports the opposing viewpoint. This even-handedness makes her following claim that it's not that simple more believable, since she doesn't appear to be presenting a one-sided argument. Example Type #4: Explanation of Picture Chart Template, Evidence. In some cases, the clarity with which the author links her evidence and her claims is integral to the author's argument. As the College Board Official SAT Study Guide says,
Reasoning is the connective tissue that holds an argument together. It’s the “thinking” — the logic, the Sheet Templates – Free analysis — that develops the argument and ties the claim and Picture Organizational Chart evidence together. This is one of the trickier argument-building techniques to discuss (at least in my opinion), because while it is present in Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 many essay prompts, it isn't always a major persuasive feature. You can pretty easily identify an author's explanation of evidence if the author connects claims to support and explains it , rather than just throwing out evidence without much ceremony or linking to the claim; however, whether or not the explanation of the evidence is a major contributing factor to the author's argument is somewhat subjective. Here's a pretty clear instance of a case where an author uses explanations of each piece of evidence she discusses to logically advance her argument (again from the Template Dockterman passage): And at MIT’s Education Arcade, playing the empire-building game Civilization piqued students’ interest in history and Employee Termination Letter Samples : Vatansun was directly linked to an improvement in the quality of their history-class reports. Unfortunately, the Picture Organizational Template For Powerpoint explanation the Official SAT Study Guide gives for Business Plan; 18 Managing And Contingency, how to discuss an author's reasoning is Organizational Chart For Powerpoint, a little vague: You may decide to discuss how the author uses (or fails to use) clear, logical reasoning to Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 draw a connection between a claim and the evidence supporting that claim. But how exactly you should go about doing this? And wh y is it persuasive to Organizational Template clearly explain the link between evidence and claim? In general, when an author explains the logic behind her argument or point, the reader can follow along and understand the author’s argument better (which in some cases makes it more likely the Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 reader will agree with the author).
In the Dockterman example above, the author clearly lays out Picture Organizational Chart Template data ( Civilization leads to improvements in No. 1 Coverage Of 2017: When A Reservation history class), a claim (this is because of engagement with the Picture Chart For Powerpoint game and thus the Samples subject material), provides data that back up that claim (retention rate skyrockets when students do things for themselves), and links that smaller claim to a larger concept (actively browsing pages on Picture Template a computer or tablet is way more brain-stimulating than vegging out in front of the TV). This clear pattern of data-explanation-more data-more explanation enables the reader to follow along with Dockterman's points. Risk Business Plan; 18 Managing Risk And Contingency. It's more persuasive because, rather than just being told Civilization leads to improvements in history and having to Organizational Template take it on faith, the reader is forced to reenact the thinking processes that led to the argument, engaging with the Employee Termination With topic on a deeper level. Examples of Stylistic/Persuasive Elements. This final category of examples is the top layer of argument building. The foundation of a good argument is evidence, which is often explained and elucidated by reasoning, but it is often the addition of Chart, stylistic or persuasive elements like an Know Resume Here ironic tone or a rhetorical flourish that seals the deal. Vivid language is Chart Template, truly the icing on the persuasive cake. As with explanations of evidence, vivid language can be found across all topics of essay prompts (although they usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic). Vivid language is pretty easy to spot - it shows itself in similes, metaphors, adjectives, or any words that jump out at you that don’t seem to have purely functional purposes . Here are a couple of examples - the first is Paul Bogard again: …show that what was a very dark country as recently as the 1950s is now nearly covered with a blanket of Templates – Free Sample, Example, light.
This example is relatively restrained, using the Chart metaphor of a blanket of light to add emphasis to Bogard's discussion of light pollution. A more striking example can be found in another official SAT essay prompt, adapted from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech Beyond Vietnam - A Time To Break Silence: Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money like some demonic destructive suction tube. Vivid language is an effective argument building device because it puts the reader in the author’s shoes and draws them into the passage . If used in Termination With Samples : Vatansun moderation, vivid language will also make the topic more interesting for Picture Organizational Chart, the reader to read, thus engaging them further. In the excerpt taken from Martin Luther King Jr.'s speech above, the phrase demonic destructive suction tube is startling and provocative, meant to rouse the audience's indignation at the injustice and waste of the Vietnam war. If King had left out the second part of the sentence and only said, Vietnam continued to draw men and skills and money, his point would not have had as big of an impact. Example Type #6: Direct Addresses and Appeals to the Reader. The last category I'll be discussing in this article are direct addresses and Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 appeals to the reader. These stylistic elements are found across all sorts of Picture Chart, different passage topics, although as with the previous category, these elements usually play a larger role when the passage is light on facts or logic.
Direct addresses and appeals to the reader are wordings or other stylistic devices specifically designed to provoke a response (often emotional) in the reader . This category covers many different elements, from appeals to 10+ Business Fax Cover Sheet – Free Sample, Example emotion to rhetorical questions. Here's an example of an appeal to emotion, taken again from Martin Luther King, Jr.'s speech: Perhaps a more tragic recognition of reality took place when it became clear to me that the war was doing far more than devastating the hopes of the poor at home. It was sending their sons and their brothers and their husbands to fight and to die in extraordinarily high proportions relative to Picture Organizational Template the rest of the population. And here's an example of a rhetorical question (from the Paul Bogard article): Who knows what this vision of the night sky might inspire in each of us, in our children or grandchildren? Appealing to the emotions , as Martin Luther King, Jr. does in his speech, is an alternate route to 10+ Business Fax Cover Sheet Templates – Free Sample, persuasion, as it causes readers to emotionally (rather than logically) agree with the author . By describing how the war was causing their sons and Picture their brothers and their husbands to fight and die, King reminds the reader of the terrible costs of war, playing upon their emotions to get them to Of Objective On A Resume. agree that the Vietnam War is a mistake, particularly for Picture Organizational Template For Powerpoint, the poor. Rhetorical questions , on the other hand, get the Examples On A Resume. readers to Organizational Chart step into the author's world. By reading and thinking about the author's question, the reader engages with the topic on a deeper level than if the reader were just given a statement of what the author thinks . No. 1 Coverage Of 2017:. In the Chart For Powerpoint case of the Power-Of-Attorney-Form2607-Thumbnail-4.jpg?cb=1282186487 Bogard example above, the Organizational rhetorical question draws the Plans. Business 18 Managing Risk And Contingency reader into thinking about his/her descendants, a group of people for whom the reader (presumably) only wishes the best, which then puts the reader into a positive mood (assuming the reader likes his/her descendants).
As you can see, these examples of different argumentative techniques can be extracted from a lot of different article types for a wide range of topics . This is because the examples themselves are so meaningful and complex that they can be used to discuss a lot of Chart, issues. The main point is, you don't have to wait until you see the Coverage When A Reservation Of Rights prompt to develop an arsenal of types of argument-building techniques you can use to support your points. Instead, preparing beforehand how you’ll discuss these techniques will save you a lot of time and anxiety when the Organizational test rolls around . If you're reading this article, you probably want to excel on the SAT essay. We've written a bunch of detailed guides to make sure you do. Took the old SAT and not sure how the Letter Samples : Vatansun new essay compares to Picture Chart Template For Powerpoint the old? Start with our article about what’s changed with the On A Resume. new SAT essay, then investigate the SAT essay rubric for further edification. Want to score a perfect SAT score? Check out our guide on Picture how to score a perfect SAT score, written by our resident perfect scorer. How happy would you be with adding an Plan; 18 Managing And Contingency extra 160 SAT points to your score ? If it's a lot, check out Picture Organizational our guide to how you should study to improve your SAT score by 160 points: Have friends who also need help with test prep?
Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of Bard College. She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and Fax Cover Templates – Free Example loves advising students on how to Template excel in Coverage Case Of 2017: When A Reservation Of Rights Letter high school. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed. Follow us on all 3 of Picture Organizational Template, our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section:
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